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Perovskite Detectors

Session chair: Motakef , Shariar (CapeSym, Inc., 6 Huron Drive, Natick, USA); Yang , Ge (North Carolina State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Raleigh, USA)
Shortcut: R-03
Date: Tuesday, 19 October, 2021, 9:15 AM - 11:15 AM
Room: RTSD
Session type: RTSD Session


Click on an contribution to preview the abstract content.

9:15 AM R-03-01

Perovskite X-ray Detectors for High Spatial Resolution Synchrotron Imaging (#579)

A. Datta1, K. Hansen1, G. Pinaroli2, G. Carini2, G. Deptuch2, P. O'Connor2, S. Herrmann2, S. Motakef1

1 CapeSym, Inc., R&D, Natick, Massachusetts, United States of America
2 Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation DivisionUpton, Upton, New York, United States of America


Modern synchrotron-based X-ray imaging techniques, such as coherent X-ray diffraction imaging and phase-contrast imaging, require high beam coherence and highly penetrating X-rays. The new generation of synchrotrons achieves enhanced coherence at beam energies higher than 30-50keV. These new prospects require high spatial resolution and efficient large area detectors. Current X-ray detectors are limited in efficiency (Si-based) and spatial resolution (scintillator-based) and cannot meet the current imaging demands. We are developing methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) based synchrotron detectors on custom high spatial resolution scalable readout ASICs. The high-Z semiconductor and the charge limiting layers are deposited by a low-temperature and low-cost process. These detectors not only demonstrate low dark current and high X-ray sensitivity but also can be repeatedly manufactured over large area active pixel backplanes. In addition to single-pixel configurations, the performance of these sensor layers will be characterized using a custom CMOS pixelated readout ASIC that is currently under development at BNL.


This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science Award Number DE-SC0019658.

Keywords: Synchrotron detector, X-ray detector, Perovskite, Timepix, ASIC
9:30 AM R-03-02

Growth and characterisation of Cs2AgBiBr6 double perovskite single crystals for application in radiation sensing (#489)

V. Murgulov1, C. Schweinle2, M. Daub1, 2, H. Hillebrecht1, 2, M. Fiederle1

1 University of Freiburg, Material Research Center, Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
2 University of Freiburg, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany


The inorganic Cs2AgBiBr6 radiation sensor material with a double perovskite structure has recently emerged as a stable alternative to the hybrid MAPbBr3 perovskite single crystals owing to its higher moisture resistance, absence of toxic lead, suppressed ion migration and higher stopping power. In this study, the phase purity and crystallinity of all Cs2AgBiBr6 samples have been verified from the powder XRD data (face centred cubic; Fm3m). We have performed I-V measurements to determine an Ohmic behaviour of the silver glue-Cs2AgBiBr6 and the carbon paint-Cs2AgBiBr6 contacts and used the space-charge-limit current method to estimate the key electrical performance parameters. The resistivity values are on the order of 108-109 Ωcm for the silver glue-Cs2AgBiBr6, compared to 106-108 Ωcm for the carbon paint-Cs2AgBiBr6. Typically, the I-V curves exhibit overlapping trap-filled and trap-free regimes. Therefore, estimation of the trap-filled limit voltages is ambiguous, in particular for the carbon paint-Cs2AgBiBr6. The charge-carrier mobility values are slightly higher for the carbon paint-Cs2AgBiBr6 (1.90-4.82 cm2/Vs and 27.5 to 38.1 cm2/Vs) then for the silver glue-Cs2AgBiBr6 (0.07-4.54 cm2/Vs and 22.9-24.4 cm2/Vs), while the trap state densities are comparable and on the order 109-1010 cm-3, which agree with the literature values. The resistivities calculated from the van der Pauw measurements are on the order of 109 Ωcm for the carbon paint-Cs2AgBiBr6, but 1010 Ωcm for the silver glue-Cs2AgBiBr6, which are within the range of the published values. The obtained electrical performance parameters indicate that the Cs2AgBiBr6 single crystals satisfy requirements for radiation detection applications.

Keywords: Cs2AgBiBr6, double perovskite, crystal growth, electrical properties, radiation sensing
9:45 AM R-03-03

MAPb(Br1-xClx)3 perovskite materials for direct X-ray detection (#490)

J. A. Mayén Guillén1, 2, O. Baussens1, 3, M. Chapran1, 3, J. - M. Verilhac1, 2, E. Gros D'Aillon1, 3, A. Ibanez1, 4, J. Zaccaro1, 4

1 Grenoble Alpes University, Grenoble, France
2 CEA, LITEN, Grenoble, France
3 CEA, LETI, Grenoble, France
4 CNRS, Institut Néel, Grenoble, France


Organic-inorganic (hybrid) halide perovskite materials bring an unprecedented opportunity for radiation detection in direct mode. We studied methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr3) single crystals (SCs). Characterizations under X-ray illumination of detector devices based on these SCs demonstrated good sensitivity but large dark currents. To improve that critical parameter, using MAPbBr3 as base material, we applied anion engineering within the halide elements. We present here mixed halide perovskite SCs via Modified Inverse Temperature Crystallization (MITC) in dimethylformamide (DMF) by substituting partially bromide by chloride. Several chlorine contents in solution were studied. The resulting crystals were used to prepare X-ray detection devices and their optoelectronic properties were determined, hinting at the existence of a potential optimal composition with MAPb(Br0.97Cl0.03)3.

AcknowledgmentI would like to specially thank our team: Oriane Baussens, Marian Chapran, Jean-Marie Verilhac, Eric Gros D'Aillon and Julien Zaccaro, as well as Sébastien Paris for his expertise in SEM-EDX characterization and Frédéric Sermet for his help with sample polishing.
Keywords: anion engineering, inverse temperature crystallization, hybrid perovskite, single crystal, X-ray detection
10:00 AM R-03-04

Ultra-stable and robust response to X-Rays in 2D layered perovskite micro-crystalline films directly deposited on flexible substrate (#358)

A. Ciavatti1, F. Ledee1, M. Verdi1, L. Basiricò1, B. Fraboni1

1 University of Bologna, DIFA, Bologna, Italy


Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) represent a breakthrough in the direct detection of X-Rays. In a matter of a few years, HOIPs have become dominant in the field, overcoming the performances of state-of-the-art X-Ray direct detecting materials. However, the recent research on X-Ray detectors incorporating HOIPs has largely focused on bulk single crystals or thick wavers that have difficulty of production over large-area, and lack of mechanical flexibility. Polycrystalline films are thus preferred to foresight the implementation of the technology. We report about the fabrication and characterization of pixelated X-Ray direct photodetectors based on the 2-dimensional (2D) layered HOIP. We developed a reliable method for the deposition of micro-crystalline films directly deposited onto pre-patterned electrodes on flexible substrate by low-temperature solution process. The grains that compose the perovskite films exhibit high crystallinity and provide excellent opto-electrical properties both in terms of charge carrier collection, stability, and ultra-fast response (< 200ns), faster than previous 2D HOIP based detectors. As a result of high X-ray stopping power, ultra-low dark current and good µτ, the performances of the devices as ionizing radiation detectors exhibit remarkable sensitivity of 806 ± 6 μC Gy-1 cm-2, Limit of Detection down to 8 nGy s-1 and ultra-stable response under continuous operation.

Keywords: perovskite, flexible detector, large area
10:15 AM R-03-05

Charge Transport Optimisation of FA Lead Halide Perovskite Radiation Detectors (#556)

S. H. Bennett1, S. S. Alghamdi1, I. H. Braddock1, J. G. O'Neill1, X. Liu2, B. Zhang2, P. J. Sellin1

1 University of Surrey, Physics, Guildford, United Kingdom
2 Northwestern Polytechnical University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi'an, China


This summary reports the charge transport behaviour of formamidinium lead tribromide (FAPbBr3) single crystal perovskites. With limited data currently published on these perovskites, our presented results suggest that FAPbBr3 single crystals have the opportunity to be suitable X-/gamma-ray detectors as well as being sensitive to alpha particles, with a high resistivity value of 1.3E+9 Ωcm, high X-ray sensitivity of 227 μC/Gycm^2 at -15V bias and suitable electron/hole mobilities obtained from laser time of flight measurements of μe = 20 cm^2/Vs and μh = 6 cm^2/Vs respectively.

Keywords: Perovskites, Charge transport, Time of Flight, Radiation detectors, Alpha particle measurement
10:30 AM R-03-06

Large Area Polycrystalline Perovskite X-ray Detectors (#618)

S. S. Alghamdi1, S. H. Bennett1, I. H. Braddock1, H. J. Gibbard1, J. G. O'Neill1, R. Moss2, P. J. Sellin1

1 University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford, United Kingdom
2 University College London,, Department Medical Physics & Biomedical Engineering,, London, United Kingdom


Lead halide perovskite is a suitable candidate for X-ray radiation detectors due to its good optoelectronic properties and high attenuation. In this paper, solution-based growth and a high-pressure press method are employed to prepare a large (2 cm diameter and 1 mm thickness) organic-inorganic hybrid formamidinium lead bromide (FAPbBr3) polycrystalline X-ray detector. The device shows a high resistivity of 6.3 × 109 Ω.cm, a low carrier concentration of  108 cm-3, and a charge mobility of 1.3 cm2 V-1 s-1. When operated in photocurrent mode with 40kV X-rays, the polycrystalline detector has a sensitivity of 75.1 µC Gyair-1 cm-2 under 30 V bias, which is four times higher than α-Se detectors. Due to its relatively simple synthesis, inexpensive cost, and high sensitivity to radiation detection, polycrystalline lead halide perovskites are a strong candidate for commercialized X-ray detectors.


This work was carried out at and supported by the University of Surrey. S.S acknowledges Al-Baha University, Saudi Arabia, for the studentship support.

Keywords: perovskite, X-ray detector, Polycrystalline, large size pellet, sensitivity
10:45 AM R-03-07

Solution Growth and Detector performance of Centimeter-scale Lead Halide Perovskites (#1067)

B. Boschetti1, R. Toufanian1, A. Datta1, S. Motakef1

1 CapeSym, Inc., R&D, Natick, Massachusetts, United States of America


Organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites have shown to be promising materials for radiation detection applications. Such perovskites contain the High-Z element Pb, which results in a high stopping power for higher energy radiation. Among the methylammonium lead halide perovskites, methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) shows the best environmental stability. MAPbBr3 also has a long carrier lifetime, enabling good energy resolution for gamma-rays. In addition, MAPbBr3, CsPbBr3, and MAPbI3 single crystals can be grown using a low capital-cost solution technique without the use of expensive equipment required by the melt growth processes that are generally used for other semiconductor radiation detectors such as CZT. However, a drawback of solution-grown semiconductors compared to other conventional melt-grown semiconductors is that the attainable single crystal size is limited to a few millimeters.  We were able to overcome this limitation by utilizing a modified inverse temperature crystallization (ITC) process and were able to grow centimeter-scale MAPbBr3 and MAPbI3 crystals through sequential seeded growths at low temperatures. We investigated the solution growth parameters for successfully growing large MAPbBr3 crystals and their high-energy radiation detection capabilities. In this presentation, the crystal growth processes, and the detection performance of MAPbBr3, CsPbBr3, and MAPbI3 crystals will be discussed.

AcknowledgmentThis material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of DNN R&D Award Number DE-SC0020900 and U.S. National Institute for Health.
Keywords: Gamma Detectors, perovskites, solution-growth, Organic detectors, Hybrid Detectors

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