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Jan 29, 2022, 7:26:06 AM
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Tristan – a 10 Million Pixel Large Area Time Resolved Detector for Synchrotron use. (#175)
D. Omar1, G. Crevatin1, A. Greer2, I. Horswell1, J. Spiers1, R. Placket3, P. Booker4, G. Lockwood3, 4, D. Beckett4, E. Galvin4, J. Lipp4, M. Di Palo5, M. Warren6, S. Williams1, N. Tartoni1
1 Diamond Light Source Ltd, Detector Group, Didcot, United Kingdom
This paper describes the development of the Tristan 10M detector for time resolved synchrotron experiments. Tristan 10M has an unprecedented time resolution (ns time scale) over long duration continuous acquisition (days). The detector is made out of an array of 160 Timepix3 readout ASIC (about 10 million pixels) flip chip bonded to 10 silicon sensors which enable to cover an area large enough to effectively carry out crystallography experiments. The large array of ASICs entailed a number of severe technical challenges that had to be met during the development of the detector.
The minimization of the dead area between sensors required the development of a very challenging mechanical and electronic packaging. Such a packaging had to be able to route the large number of data and power lines within the footprint of a sensor, had to effectively sink the heat generated by the ASICs, and had to be able to accurately position the sensors. In addition, the packaging of the detector was designed to be scalable in consideration of possible future larger versions of this detector which added a further challenge.
The data driven nature of Timepix3 and the sheer data volume produced by the array of ASICs required to devise a dedicated hardware, firmware, and software data acquisition architecture. This architecture proved very effective during the commissioning of Tristan10M when time resolved crystallography experiments were carried out.
D. Omar thanks the members of the Medipix Collaboration for their assistance.
Keywords: Sensor systems and applications, Synchrotron, Timepix3, Time Resolved experiment, X-Ray detector
Gotthard-II: From the Final ASIC to the Final System (#495)
D. Mezza1, M. Andrae1, R. Barten1, A. Bergamaschi1, M. Brueckner1, S. Chiriotti-Alvarez1, R. Dinapoli1, E. Froejdh1, D. Greiffenberg1, S. Hasanaj1, V. Hinger1, T. King1, P. Kozlowski1, M. Kuster2, C. Lopez-Cuenca1, M. Meyer1, A. Mozzanica1, M. Ramilli2, C. Ruder1, B. Schmitt1, D. Thattil1, M. Turcato2, S. Vetter1, J. Zhang1
1 Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), SLS Detector Group, Villigen, Aargau, Switzerland
Gotthard-II (G-II) is a 1-D silicon microstrip detector developed for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL). Its main targets are energy dispersive experiments and veto signal generation for large area pixel detectors, which are currently being operated at the EuXFEL, such as AGIPD, LPD and DSSC. G-II is optimized to detect energies in the range 5 keV – 20 keV. With the final version of the ASIC this detector can provide single photon resolution at 5.4 keV with a signal to noise ratio > 5 (noise around 300 e- r.m.s.). Concerning the speed, G-II is able to cope with the EuXFEL burst mode, corresponding to 2700 images at a frame rate of 4.5 MHz. In continuous mode it can stand a frame rate of 410 kHz, making it suitable for usage at synchrotrons and for XFELs operated in CW mode. The G-II ASICs are wirebonded to a silicon microstrip sensor with a pitch of 50 µm or 25 µm and with 1280 or 2560 channels. In the ASIC, a high DC gain charge sensitive preamplifier, a fully differential Correlated-Double-Sampling stage, a 12-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter with a sampling/conversion rate of > 18 MS/s as well as a Static Random-Access Memory capable of storing all the 2700 images of the EuXFEL bunch train have been implemented. The G-II ASIC has been designed in UMC 110 nm technology. The final ASIC was received in June 2019 and extensively characterized. At the beginning of 2020 the first G-II module was produced. Several experimental tests using the G-II detector were performed at synchrotron radiation sources, including X-ray diffraction/absorption/emission spectroscopies (XRD/XAS/XES). Starting from the beginning of 2021, G-II started its commissioning phase with the production of > 46 detector modules for the EuXFEL. In this contribution the main characterization results will be shown together with the calibration of the final detector. Moreover the experimental results at synchrotron beamlines mentioned above will be presented.
Keywords: 1D Detectors, Instrumentation for XFELs, X-Ray Detectors
XIDER: First Prototypes and Results with the Digital Integration Readout Scheme (#542)
M. Williams1, P. Busca1, M. Collonge1, 2, P. Fajardo1, P. Fischer2, T. Martin1, M. Rizert2, M. Ruat1, D. Schimansky2
1 ESRF, Grenoble, France
The ESRF Extremely Brilliant Source (EBS) is the first fourth-generation high-energy synchrotron facility worldwide. Next-generation sources of synchrotron radiation pose significant challenges for 2D pixelated X-ray detectors. In particular, scattering and diffraction experiments require fast detectors with a high dynamic range, from single-photon sensitivity to pile-up conditions under high photon fluxes of up to 109 photons s−1 per pixel. The XIDER project aims to fulfil the needs of these high-energy applications by implementing a novel incremental digital integration readout scheme. XIDER detectors seek to operate efficiently under the high-flux EBS beam of up to 100 keV photons, with a time resolution that can cope with near-continuous and pulsed beams of up to 5.7 MHz. The first XIDER prototypes have been recently assembled by hybridising 1mm cadmium-telluride sensors with a custom-designed ASIC readout in TSMC 65 nm, realising the first implementation of the digital integration readout scheme. These prototypes are functional and characterisation measurements have begun, including irradiation under visible light and X-ray sources.
This work is part of the ESRF Extremely Brilliant Source Upgrade Programme (ESRF-EBS) and has received financial support from the ATTRACT EU project.
Keywords: X-ray detectors, X-ray diffraction detectors, Frontend electronics for detector readout
High Rate SDD-Based Spectrometer for Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Detection (#559)
G. Utica1, 2, M. Carminati1, 2, E. Fabbrica1, 2, N. Zorzi3, 4, G. Borghi3, 4, C. Fiorini1, 2, G. Deda1, 2
1 Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria (DEIB), Milano, Italy
The continuous upgrades of synchrotron light sources pushed the development of more performing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometers. To cope with high-brilliance X-ray beams, fluorescence detectors must increase maximum throughput and covered solid angle, keeping ultralow noise performance to attain the required high energy resolution. In this work, we report the results of the ARDESIA-16 spectrometer and a novel detection module, named ASCANIO, both based on monolithic Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) array, specifically designed to fit the requirements of synchrotron applications. ARDESIA features a finger-like geometry, whereas ASCANIO is meant to be used in a back scattering geometry such that the solid angle is optimized. Experimental results of the ARDESIA detection module showed an average energy resolution at the optimum peaking time equal to 125 eV (FWHM at Mn Kα), a maximum achieved output count rate equal to 17 Mcps and an overall solid angle covered by the detector equal to 0.4 sr. Thanks to its geometry, ASCANIO improves the maximum solid angle to 1.6 sr keeping the same perfomance of ARDESIA. Finally, we report the X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) images measured with an ARDESIA spectrometer at synchrotron beamlines.
Keywords: X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Silicon Drift Detector, X-ray detectors, Solid state detectors
Novel Magnetic Field Mapping Sensor for Characterization of Insertion Devices (#733)
M. Turqueti1, S. Bheesette1, J. Taylor1
1 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Engineering Division, Berkeley, California, United States of America
This work investigates an innovative magnetic field probe especially suitable but not limited to the characterization of insertion devices for light sources such as undulators and wigglers. Examples of such systems include the undulators planned for the Advanced Light Source Upgrade (ALS-U), where a complete magnetic characterization of the device is an integral part of its construction and certification. Current magnetic field measurement technologies for such hardware include Hall Effect probes, wire-based systems, and sensing coils. Hall Effect sensors are widely utilized for local field mapping and are the technology of choice for most magnetic characterizations. Nevertheless, these sensors have limitations such as direct current offset, nonlinearity, temperature drift, sensor aging, and the planar Hall effect. Their long-term gain and output can drift with time and temperature, requiring frequent recalibration. This research proposes a paradigm shift that aims to develop novel sensing technology based on a micro–Cathode Ray Tube (mCRT) integrated with an image sensor. This technology utilizes an electron beam that emulates the actual beam traversing the undulator or magnet when in operation but with lower energy. The mCRT shoots a stream of electrons at the imager, which is mounted perpendicularly to the beam and located at the opposite end of the tube. Electrostatic lenses continually manipulate the electric field and project a pattern onto the image sensor. This pattern is dependent on the magnetic environment present at the beam path and can be translated to field measurements. With this unique approach, all limitations inherent to Hall probes are eliminated and important advantages such as radiation hardness and cryogenic operation gained, thus resulting in a state-of-the-art magnetometer that will improve magnetic metrology in the future.
Keywords: Electron Beam, Insertion Devices, Imager, Magnetic Probe, Magnetometer
New fast photon counting hybrid pixel detector for synchrotron applications developed at Synchrotron SOLEIL (#921)
A. Dawiec1, C. Bacchi1, J. Bisou1, P. Grybos2, P. Maj2, B. Kanoute1, C. Menneglier1, R. Szczygiel2, F. Orsini1, G. Thibaux1
1 SOLEIL Synchrotron, Saint Aubin, France
A new fast single photon counting hybrid pixel detector has been developed at SOLEIL to carry out multi-probe time resolved diffraction experiments at high repetition rate. Although the detector has been initially designed for the interest of the pump-probe-probe experiments, thanks to its promising detection performance and various fast acquisition mode, its use is being continuously extended to other beamlines at SOLEIL, for existing and/or new applications, e.g., coherent imaging, X-ray photon correlated spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and/or others applications that requires high detection sensibility at moderate energy below 6 keV. To fulfill the various demands, two detector prototype versions have been designed and realized: one with a square shaped active area of 2 × 2 cm² and another one with a rectangular active area of 1 × 4 cm². The performance and first results obtained on beamlines using the two versions of the detector will be presented during the conference. The next step consists to develop a larger and more performant detector and its status will be briefly presented.
Keywords: hybrid pixels, synchrotron radiation, time resolved experiments, XPS, coherent imaging
Thermal Cycling study of Indium bump-bonds for High-Z material based X-ray pixel array Detectors (#1114)
L. Rozario1, J. Segal1, J. Hasi1, G. Blaj1, P. Brink1, M. Cherry1, C. Kenney1
1 SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, TID, Menlo Park, California, United States of America
We report thermal cycling reliability results for Indium bump bonds for germanium pixel detector applications. Test chips containing separate elements of a daisy chain are fabricated on silicon and germanium wafers and bonded using Indium bump bonding technology. Bump-bonding process conditions were explored, including bump heights of 2-, 4-, and 6-microns and different bump-bonding temperature and pressure conditions. Thermal cycling between room temperature and -196 deg C was performed on the modules. The resulting contact failure rates show that indium bump-bonding is a promising solution for germanium pixel detector modules.
Keywords: High-Z sensor, Indium Bump-bonding, germanium sensor
First Soft X-ray Quantum Efficiency Measurements on Microwave Annealed Thin-Entrance Window Sensors (#1118)
J. D. Segal1, C. J. Kenney1, E. Gullikson2, J. M. Kowalski3, J. E. Kowalski3, L. Rozario1, J. Hasi1, L. Rota1, A. Dragone1
1 SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California, United States of America
Free electron lasers, such as SLAC’s LCLS-II, will provide unique scientific imaging opportunities. In order to fully utilize these facilities, we need to develop detectors with shallow entrance windows that will enable detection of soft x-rays from 250eV-1.5KeV. In addition, there are other light sources such as the FERMI, EuXFEL, and FLASH XFELs, as well as numerous synchrotrons such as the ALS, where soft x-ray science would benefit from detectors with higher quantum efficiency in the 20 eV – 100 eV range. A new microwave annealing technology provides an efficient way to achieve shallow entrance windows in fully depleted high-resistivity silicon sensors. Previously, SRP and SIMS measurements were used to characterize the shallow dopant profile, and sensors with the new entrance window process were deployed successfully to measure an Fe-55 x-ray spectrum. For the first time, we present quantum efficiency measurement for soft x-rays. The resulting preliminary estimate of the entrance window is approximately 35-50nm.
Keywords: silicon sensors, soft x-ray sensors