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DAQ Trigger Non-High Energy Physics

Session chair: Ritt , Stefan (Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), NUM, Villigen, Switzerland); Tétrault , Marc-André (Université de Sherbrooke, Institut d'Innovation Interdisciplinaire et Technologique, Sherbrooke, Canada)
Shortcut: N-24
Date: Thursday, 21 October, 2021, 9:15 AM - 11:15 AM
Room: NSS - 1
Session type: NSS Session


Click on an contribution to preview the abstract content.

9:15 AM N-24-01

Readout Electronics Design for a Cosmic Ray Muon Imaging System (#268)

Z. Wang1, Y. Wang1, Z. Liang1, C. Li1

1 University of Science and Technology of China, Department of Modern Physics, Hefei, China


We proposed a new plastic scintillator detector structure for cosmic ray muon imaging system to improve spatial resolution. The completed apparatus is to consist of four X-Y position-sensitive detector layers and the target to be inspected places in the middle of the upper and lower layers, the detector planes are composed of 48 triangle plastic scintillating bars and each contains two wavelength shift (WLS) fibers that transport the scintillation light to SiPMs at the one end of the fiber. In this architecture, it is crucial to accurately measure the number of photons produced by cosmic ray muons in the plastic scintillator to achieve high spatial imaging resolution. Thus, we designed a readout electronic with Zynq-7000 SoC where the analog channels on board perform charge and timing measurements of the arrival signals, while the programmable logic (PL) in the SoC achieve the event coincidence and the processing system (PS) of the SoC carry out the system configuration and data transmission. Using the designed electronics, the performance of the prototype detector system consisting of one plastic scintillating bar and two WLS fibers, along with the Hamamatsu S13360-3075 SiPM have been evaluated. The preliminary test results show that the designed electronics can distinguish events with a different number of photons, which meets the expected goal of the cosmic ray muon imaging system based on plastic scintillator.

AcknowledgmentThis work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grants 11735013.
Keywords: Front-end electronics, Muon imaging, Plastic scintillations, SiPM, Zynq-7000 SoC
9:30 AM N-24-02

RFSoC-based Front-end Electronics for KamLAND (#352)

S. Futagi1, 3, S. Asami1, 3, K. Hosokawa1, 3, K. Ishidoshiro1, 3, N. Kawada1, 3, S. Axani2, 3, S. Ieki1, 3, T. Nakahata1, 3

1 Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan
2 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
3 Research Center for Neutrino Science, Miyagi, Japan


KamLAND-Zen is an experiment to search for neutrino-less double beta decay of Xe136 to resolve whether neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac particles with a 1 kiloton liquid scintillator detector, called KamLAND. KamLAND-Zen 800 phase has started from January 2019 with 745 kilograms of 90 percent enriched Xe136. Currently, many R&D are ongoing for higher sensitive search in the new phase (KamLAND2-Zen). From the dedicated analysis with KamLAND-Zen 800 data, we found new serious backgrounds which are long-lived spallation products of Xe136. The spallation of Xe136 creates a lot of neutrons, and the number of neutrons is correlated with this spallation products. Neutron multiplicity is a key to tag this spallation backgrounds. However, neutron detection efficiency is not enough because of PMT’s afterpulses and overshoots. To improve the efficiency, we are accelerating our developments of Radio Frequency System-on-Chip-based (RFSoC-based) front-end electronics (FEE). RFSoC is the device, which incorporates FPGA Programmable Logic (PL), a Processing System (PS) based on Arm applications and real-time processors, a set radio frequency (RF) data convertor, based on Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+. FEE has 16 channels analog inputs for RF data convertors, and output using Ethernet controlled by PS.  PL developed by "System Generator for DSP" restores the baseline to zero in the overshoots. Large buffer of PL enables us to send all signals including afterpulses to readout computers. Off-line analysis will extract neutrino events from many afterpulses. With the first prototype, we demonstrated to overcome afterpulses and overshoot from PMT tests. RFSoC based FEE is promising for KamLAND-Zen.

Keywords: neutrino, front-end electronics, RFSoC, BLR
9:45 AM N-24-03

Updates from the sPHENIX Data Acquisition System - one year to go (#701)

M. L. Purschke1

1 Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, Upton, New York, United States of America


The sPHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider will start taking data in 2023. With the required support for detector commissioning, performance tests, and similar activities, the data acquisition and the assorted systems (trigger timing, etc) will need to be in a usable state around mid-2022. We will present updates to the current developments, achievements, and especially the state of combining the streaming readout of the tracking detectors with the triggered readout of the calorimeters and the Minimum-Bias Detector. We currently have working prototypes of all but one of the major components (the Local-Level-1 system). We will show that we can properly align the data from different detector systems, that we are able to combine the data from about 60 individual data streams for the reconstruction steps, and that we can control the hundreds of hardware units in a way that we can take data with high efficiency. We will also explain how sPHENIX will implement streaming readout for select detector systems.

AcknowledgmentFor the sPHENIX Collaboration
Keywords: sPHENIX, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, Streaming Readout
10:00 AM N-24-04

An Encoding Readout Scheme for Micromegas Detector Used in Muon imaging (#500)

J. Liu1, 2, S. Liu1, 2, Z. Shen1, 2, Y. Wang1, 2, C. Feng1, 2, Z. Zhang1, 2

1 University of Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Hefei, China
2 University of Science and Technology of China, Department of Modern Physics, Hefei, China


In recent decades, with the continuous development of particle detection experiments, modern particle detection devices have been developing rapidly in the direction of high precision and large area. Modern particle detection experiments with high precision and large area mean a large number of detector channels. Although the conventional direct readout scheme is simple in design, it needs a large number of electronic channels, which causes low integration and high cost, which limits its application in detectors with higher precision and larger area. Therefore, an appropriate coding scheme is urgently needed to reduce the number of electronic channels in the detector. By constructing a specific Euler loop and the corresponding Hamiltonian path, we obtain a set of coding scheme, which can greatly reduce the number of electronic channels without reducing the position resolution of the detector, and the scheme has good standardization and generality. The coding adapter boards using this encoding scheme are being successfully used in cosmic ray muon imaging experiments.

AcknowledgmentThis work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 12025504.
Keywords: encoding readout, muon imaging, readout electronics
10:15 AM N-24-05

Data acquisition system for a 146-channel counter of protons in particle therapy (#901)

S. Giordanengo1, M. Abujami1, 2, C. Galeone2, S. Garbolino1, O. Marti Villarreal1, 2, F. Mas Milian2, 3, G. Mazza1, M. Mignone1, A. Vignati1, 2, R. Wheadon1, R. Cirio1, 2, V. Monaco1, 2, R. Sacchi1, 2

1 Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Division of Torino, Torino, Italy
2 University of Torino, Physics Department, Torino, Italy
3 Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, Brazil


A prototype of proton counter was developed by the University and the National Institute for Nuclear Physics of Torino to be used as online fluence beam monitor in particle therapy. The single particle identification approach aims at increasing the sensitivity and readout speed with respect to the state-of-the-art gas ionization chambers. The sensitive area is 2,7×2,7 cm2 to cover the clinical beam cross section of about 1 cm full width at half maximum at the isocenter. The sensor is a thin Low Gain Avalanche Diode segmented in 146 strips with 180 µm pitch and with 50 μm active thickness, designed and produced by the Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy). The frontend readout to identify the single proton signal provided by each strip is based on a 24-channel custom ASICs, named ABACUS, optimized to discriminate the signal pulses in a wide charge range (3-150 fC) with a maximum dead-time of 10 ns. With these specifications, at the maximum fluence rate of 108 p/(cm2⸱s) in the clinical energy range (60-230 MeV) and considering the silicon strips described above, a maximum pileup counting inefficiency < 1% is achieved. A frontend board housing 6 ABACUS chips to readout the 146 strips was developed, the digital outputs being sent to 3 FPGAs (Kintex7) for the counting. A LabVIEW program implements the interface with the FPGAs, displays online the counting rate from each strip and stores the data for offline analysis. The proton counter data acquisition system will be presented and the preliminary performances in terms of baseline uniformity, noise, linearity with charge, efficiency with pulse rate and data throughput will be reported.


This work has been founded by the MoVeIT project of the INFN-CSN5 and supported by MIUR Dipartimenti di Eccellenza (ex L.232/2016, art.1, cc. 314, 337). FMM was supported by the FAPESB fellowship. Part of this work has been supported by the European Union’s H2020 Research and Innovation funding program (G.A. 669529 - ERC UFSD669529).

Keywords: data acquisition system, single particle counter, proton therapy, silicon detectors
10:30 AM N-24-06

Development of an FPGA-based readout system of CMOS image sensor toward future satellite missions (#929)

N. Ogino1, M. Arimoto1, T. Sawano1, D. Yonetoku1, H. Goto1, T. Fujii2, J. Hiraga2, K. Sei3, A. Yamamoto3, T. Sakamoto3, Y. Yoichi4, T. Mihara5

1 Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
2 Kwansei Gakuin University, Sanda, Hyogo, Japan
3 Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan
4 Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan
5 Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama, Japan


We report development of a fast readout system of a CMOS image sensor for Japanese future satellite mission HiZ- GUNDAM observing X-ray transients such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the 0.4–4keV band. The commercial CMOS sensor developed by Gpixel Inc. has X-ray detection capability of >50% efficiency in the 0.4–4keV and radiation tolerance for 5-year operation in orbit, which satisfies the mission requirements of the HiZ-GUNDAM mission. For time-domain astronomy, fast signal processing of the CMOS sensor with >10 frames per second should be needed. Thus, we have developed an FPGA-based fast readout system for the CMOS image sensor with a compact size for space mission. Furthermore, all of the observed image data from the CMOS sensor cannot be stored in a satellite system due to an extremely large data size. The FPGA-based readout system can extract only X-ray events from the observed frame images with a few million pixels onboard, which can drastically reduce the size of the observation data and realize a smart and simple system. We also report the results of the performance verification tests of this new system by X-ray irradiation experiment using radioisotopes.


This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP17H06362 (M.A.), the JSPS Leading Initiative for Excellent Young Researchers program (M.A.).

Keywords: X-ray, CMOS sensor, pixel detector, time-domain astronomy
10:45 AM N-24-07

Readout of Large Capacitance SiPMs by Weak Coupling to Charge Sensitive Amplifier (#1226)

T. Tsang1, S. Gao2, S. Rescia1, H. Chen2, V. Radeka1

1 Brookhaven National Lab, Instrumentation Division, Upton, United States of America
2 Brookhaven National Lab, Physics Department, Upton, United States of America


Large area/large capacitance SiPM arrays are employed to collect scintillation light in noble liquid detectors such as DarkSide, nEXO, MEGII,  protoDUNE and DUNE. Light readout using ASICs designed for operation in noble liquids is a solution for large meter-scale photon detectors. However, conventional readout requires a capacitor larger than SiPM capacitance (in the range of tens of nF) to close the circuit with an amplifier.  Here, we demonstrate a  readout concept by weakly coupled (via a capacitor lower by an order of magnitude than SiPM capacitance) to a charge sensitive amplifier, LArASIC in this case, without any loss in SNR. The single-photoelectron detection, signal-to-noise ratio, timing resolution and  coincidence detection are experimentally characterized.

Keywords: SiPM, Front-end electronics, Readout ASIC
11:00 AM N-24-08

Design and development of High channel Integration Picosecond Readout (HIPeR) (#1309)

L. Macchiarulo1, I. Mostafanezhad1, R. Pang1, J. Stahoviak1, M. Luck1, B. Rotter1, K. Croker2, K. Nishimura2, M. Minot3, M. Popecki3

1 Nalu Scientific, LLC, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America
2 University of Hawaii at Manoa, Physics and Astronomy, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America
3 Incom, Inc., Charlton, Massachusetts, United States of America


In this article we describe the High channel Integration Picosecond Readout (HIPeR) board, which is capable of interfacing directly to a state-of-the-art sensor (LAPPD) and is expected to read the device with picosecond level timing, low latency and high rate, as well as being able to perform on-board extraction of charge, timing and position information. A board prototype has been fabricated and preliminary measurements show good quality data and timing performance in the 20-30 ps range without full calibration.

Keywords: System-on-chip, Data acquisition, front-end electronics, waveform digitization, picosecond timing

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