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Gaseous Detectors, Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Session chair: Zeitelhack , Karl (Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz-Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Garching, Germany); Takahashi , Hiroyuki (University of Tokyo, Institute of Engineering Innovation, Bunkyo, Japan)
Shortcut: N-23
Date: Thursday, 21 October, 2021, 7:00 AM - 8:45 AM
Room: NSS - 3
Session type: NSS Session


Click on an contribution to preview the abstract content.

7:00 AM N-23-01

Cathode Material Study of Gas Scintillation Dose Imager for Hardon-therapy (#795)

T. Fujiwara1, Y. Koba3, Y. Mitsuya2, Y. Nakayam4, K. Maehata5

1 National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tskuba, Japan
2 University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
3 National Institute of Radiation Science, Chiba, Japan
4 Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
5 Teikyo University, Fukuoka, Japan


Hadron therapy is known as one of the most efficient radiation therapies for cancers. For daily quality assurance (QA) measurements in hadron (mostly proton and carbon) radiotherapy, a dosimetry system that has a two-dimensional effective area, high spatial resolution, and linear response-to-dose is required. We demonstrate the dose imaging performance of a novel digital dose imager using carbon ion beams for hadron therapy. The dose imager is based on a newly-developed gaseous detector, a well-type glass gas electron multiplier. The imager is successfully operated in a hadron therapy facility with clinical intensity beams for radiotherapy. It features a high spatial resolution of less than 1 mm and an almost linear dose–response relationship with no saturation and very low linear-energy-transfer (LET)  dependence.

However, experimental results show small disagreement in fragment region, and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) beam measurement. We assumed that this is due to the effect of secondary particles produced by the cathode material. Therefore, we have experimentally investigated the effect of the cathode material on various cathode materials. In this talk, we will discuss the evaluation results of using aluminum, copper, film, and graphite materials as cathode materials respectively.

Keywords: Glass GEM, hadron therapy, dose imaging, gas scintillation
7:10 AM N-23-02

Development and Commissioning of the BμNID: an Event-Type Micropattern Gas Detector with 10B Converter for Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging at J-PARC (#1381)

J. D. Parker1, H. Hayashida1, Y. Matsumoto1, T. Shinohara2, T. Kai2, T. Tanimori3

1 Comprehensive Research Organization for Science and Society (CROSS), Research and Development Division, Tokai, Japan
2 Japan Atomic Energy Agency, J-PARC Center, Tokai, Japan
3 Kyoto University, Department of Physics, Kyoto, Japan


Energy-resolved neutron imaging at a high-intensity, pulsed spallation neutron source requires a detector with good spatial and time resolutions and high count-rate capability. To better meet these needs, the BμNID (a micropixel-chamber-based neutron imaging detector with 10B converter) has been developed at the RADEN instrument at J-PARC. The BμNID, built on our standard μNID, consists of a gaseous time-projection-chamber employing a μPIC (MicroPIxel Chamber) two-dimensional, 400-μm pitch micropattern strip readout with 10 cm×10 cm area and all-digital, FPGA-based readout electronics. The main physical difference between the μNID and BμNID is the neutron converter, which for the former is 3He gas and a 10B thin-film for the latter. The advantages of the 10B converter are an increased rate performance, along with elimination of 3He, which is of limited supply. Heavier charged secondaries from the 10B converter result in a reduced event size as compared to 3He, with a corresponding increase in the maximum event throughput of the data acquisition system, and the reduced event footprint leads to a smaller chance of overlap at high rates. These two factors provide an improvement in the effective rate performance of up to a factor of 10. Commissioning of the new detector began in June 2020, and it was deployed for user experiments in February 2021. Currently, the BμNID features a spatial resolution of 300μm, 10-ns time resolution, a maximum effective global count-rate of 10 Mcps, and 3∼5% detection efficiency for thermal neutrons. In the present paper, we describe the optimization of the spatial resolution and count-rate performance of the detector carried out during commissioning and plans for improving the detector going forward.

Keywords: micropattern gas detector, boron converter, neutron imaging
7:20 AM N-23-03

Secondary scintillation yield measurement in pure krypton (#854)

R. D. P. Mano1, C. M. B. Monteiro1

1 LIBPhys, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal


The krypton secondary scintillation yield was studied, at room temperature, as a function of electric field in the gas scintillation gap. A large area avalanche photodiode has been used to allow the simultaneous detection of the scintillation pulses as well as the direct interaction of x-rays, the latter being used as a reference for the calculation of the number of charge carriers produced by the scintillation pulses and, thus, the determination of the number of photons impinging the photodiode. An amplification parameter of 113 photons per kV per drifting electron and a scintillation threshold of 2.7 Td (0.7 kV cm-1 bar-1 at 293 K) was obtained, in good agreement with the simulation data reported in the literature. On the other hand, the ionisation threshold in krypton was found to be around 13.5 Td (3.4 kV cm-1 bar-1), less than what had been obtained by the most recent simulation work-package. The krypton amplification parameter is about 80% and 140% of those measured for xenon and argon, respectively. The secondary scintillation yield in krypton is of great importance for simulating krypton-based double-phase or high-pressure gas detectors, which may be used in future rare event detection experiments.


This work is funded by FEDER, through the Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade — COMPETE and by National funds through FCT — Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia in the frame of project PTDC/FIS/-NUC/1534/2014 and project UID/FIS/04559/2020 (LIBPhys).

Keywords: Gaseous detectors, X-ray detectors, Secondary scintillation in rare gases, Krypton
7:30 AM N-23-04

Gas and irradiation studies for the Micromegas detectors of the ATLAS New Small Wheel (#362)

I. Gnesi1

1 INFN, Cosenza, Italy

On behalf of ATLAS Muon Collaboration


The ATLAS collaboration has chosen the resistive Micromegas technology for the high luminosity upgrade of the first forward muon station, the New Small Wheel (NSW). One of the main features being studied is the HV stability of the detectors, mainly related to the resistivity pattern of the strips. Among the several approaches to enhance the stability of the detectors, the use of different gas mixtures are being studied. A ternary argon-CO2-isobutane mixture has shown to be effective in dumping discharges and dark currents. The presence of isobutane in the mixture required a set of ageing studies, ongoing at the GIF++ radiation facility at CERN. A summary of the results obtained up to now will be shown, as well as the upcoming test plans, mainly focused on O(1 year equivalent) time scale ageing effects.

Keywords: MICROMEGAS, MPGD, ageing
7:40 AM N-23-05

Construction and operation of Gas Electron Multiplier Tracker for the J-PARC E16 Experiment in Run0 (#95)

T. Murakami1, 2

1 The University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Bunkyo, Japan
2 RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator-based Science, Wako, Japan

for the J-PARC E16 Collaboration


The mass of vector mesons at finite density is expected to change due to the restoration of broken chiral symmetry. In the J-PARC E16 experiment,  and   decayed from the vector mesons in nuclei are measured. To obtain significant statistics, we use a high-intensity beam up to 1×/spill. To cope with the expected counting rate of 5 kHz/, we have developed and constructed a detector using Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). The GEM foils are manufactured by a Japanese company, and the number of used foils, 72, is the largest in Japan. The GEM chambers have been mass-produced and installed in the J-PARC high-momentum beamline. In the commissioning run (Run0), the chambers are operated under the same environment as coming physics run and calibration data are collected.


We would like to express our gratitude to the staff members of J-PARC Hadron Experimental Facility for their effort to construct and operate the J-PARC high-momentum beamline. We also thank to KEK electronics system group and open source consortium of instrumentation (OpenIt) for their help in the development and test of the ASICs. This work was supported by RIKEN Junior Research Associate Program, RIKEN SPDR program, MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI Grant numbers 19654036, 19340075, 21105004, 26247048, 15H05449, 15K17669, 18H05235, 20H05647, and the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan Grant number MOST108-2112-M-001-020.

Keywords: Gaseous micropattern detector, GEM, Tracker.
7:50 AM N-23-06

Study of GEM Foil Etching Techniques on Detector Performance (#1355)

F. Ivone1

1 RWTH Aachen, III. Physikalisches Institut A, Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany


The LHC will undergo a major upgrade, named the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), that will deliver instantaneous luminosity as high as 7X10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. To cope with the higher event rates and with the increased radiation doses, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment will undergo several upgrades including the installation of additional muon detectors based on the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology.

GEM foils, the core of GEM-based detectors, are currently produced with either double-mask or single-mask etching. Single-mask etching is a promising method, but results in an asymmetry in the shape of the holes. The effect of the hole asymmetry on the detector performance was studied with a twofold approach. Experimental data were collected using GEM foils with different hole geometries and detailed simulations were performed matching the experimental conditions. We present an overview of GEM detectors in CMS and describe a study to assess the impact of the GEM hole asymmetry on the detector performance.

Keywords: GEM, Gaseous Detector, Particle tracking, Performance evaluation
8:00 AM N-23-07

The GEM (GE1/1) station of the CMS muon detector: status, commissioning and early performance studies (#602)

F. M. Simone1, 2, R. Venditti1, 2

1 Università degli Studi di Bari, Physics, Bari, Italy
2 Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari, Italy

on behalf of the CMS Collaboration


During Run 3 the LHC will deliver instantaneous luminosities in the range 5X10^34 cm^-2 s^-1 to 7X10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. To cope with the high background rates and to improve the trigger capabilities in the forward region, the muon system of the CMS experiment has been upgraded with two new stations of detectors (GE1/1), one in each endcap, based on triple-GEM technology. The system was installed in 2020 and consists of 72 ten-degree chambers, each made up of two layers of triple-GEM detectors. GE1/1 provides two additional muon hit measurements which will improve muon tracking and triggering performance. We report on the status of the ongoing commissioning phase of the detector and present preliminary results obtained from cosmic-ray events. We discuss detector and readout electronics operation, stability and performance, and preparation for Run 3 of the LHC.

Keywords: Position sensitive particle detectors, CMS, GEM, muon
8:10 AM N-23-08

Digital Hadron Calorimetry (#1439)

B. Bilki1, 2, Y. Guler1, 3, Y. Onel2, J. Repond2, L. Xia4

1 Beykent University, Istanbul, Turkey
2 University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America
3 Konya Technical University, Konya, Turkey
4 Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, United States of America

On behalf of the CALICE Collaboration


Calorimeters that can fully exploit the power of Particle Flow Algorithms, which attempt to measure each particle in a hadronic jet individually, emphasize spatial granularity over single particle energy resolution. In this context, the CALICE collaboration developed the Digital Hadron Calorimeter (DHCAL). The DHCAL uses Resistive Plate Chambers as active media and is read out with 1 x 1 cm2 pads and digital (1-bit) resolution. The DHCAL went through a broad beam test program over several years to yield a unique dataset of electromagnetic and hadronic interactions with unprecedented spatial resolution. In addition to conventional calorimetry, the DHCAL offers detailed measurements of event shapes, rigorous tests of simulation models and various analytical tools to improve calorimetric performance. Here we report on the results from the analysis of DHCAL data and comparisons with the Monte Carlo simulations across various test campaigns.

Keywords: digital hadron calorimeter, resistive plate chambers, Monte Carlo simulations
8:20 AM N-23-09

Development of Novel Designs of Resistive Plate Chambers (#1440)

B. Bilki1, 2, Y. Onel2, J. Repond2, K. K. Sahbaz1, 3, M. Tosun1, 3, L. Xia4

1 Beykent University, Istanbul, Turkey
2 University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America
3 Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey
4 Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, United States of America

On behalf of the CALICE Collaboration


Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) exhibit a significant loss of efficiency for the detection of particles, when subjected to high particle fluxes. This rate limitation is related to the usually high resistivity of the resistive plates used in their construction. A novel design of RPCs, using only a single resistive plate, was developed and tested with prototype chambers of size ranging from 10 cm x 10 cm to 32 cm x 48 cm. The cosmic and beam tests confirmed the viability of this new approach for calorimetric applications where the particle rates do not exceed 1 kHz/cm2, such as CALICE digital calorimeters. The single-particle response of the chambers is also improved yielding pad multiplicities close to unity. In parallel to the development of the one-glass chambers, the effort on the development of semi-conductive glass and search for alternative lower-resistivity plates is ongoing. In addition to the development of high-rate capability solutions, we probed a new technique to mitigate the performance limitations of the projected alternative RPC gas mixtures.

Here we report on the construction of various different RPC designs, and their performance measurements in laboratory tests and with particle beams.

Keywords: resistive plate chambers, semi-conductive glass, secondary electron multiplication

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