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Nuclear and High Energy Physics I

Session chair: Zhu , Ren-yuan (California Institute of Technology, 256-48, HEP, Pasadena, USA); Kishimoto , Shunji (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Tsukuba-shi, Japan)
Shortcut: N-20
Date: Wednesday, 20 October, 2021, 11:45 AM - 1:45 PM
Room: NSS - 4
Session type: NSS Session


Click on an contribution to preview the abstract content.

11:45 AM N-20-01

New developments of the CALICE SDHCAL prototype for future lepton colliders (#455)

I. Laktineh1

1 université de Lyon, IP2I, Lyon, France


 The CALICE technological RPC-based SDHCAL prototype that fulfils all the requirements of compactness, hermeticity and power budget of the future lepton accelerator experiments, has been extensively tested and has provided excellent results in terms of  energy resolution and shower separation.

 New phase of R&D to validate completely the SDHCAL option for the International Linear Detector (ILD) project of the ILC and also the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC)  has started with the conception and the realization of new  prototypes. One of the new prototypes is intended to host a few but large active layers.  The new active layers, made of GRPC of 2 m2  size will be equipped with a new version of the electronic readout fulfilling the requirements of the future ILD detector. The new GRPC are conceived to improve the homogeneity with a new gas distribution scheme. The self-supporting mechanical structure of the new SDHCAL prototype is built using the electron beam welding to minimize the dead zones.

The second new prototype proposes to exploit the excellent time resolution provided by RPC detectors in order to better build the hadronic showers with the aim to efficiently separate them and also to single out the contribution of delayed neutrons.

The progress realized on the two prototypes will be presented and the future steps will be discussed.

Keywords: HCAL, ILC, CEPC, timing, RPC
12:00 PM N-20-02

Prototyping and Testbeam Results of a Tungsten-Crystal Spaghetti Calorimeter (#957)

L. Martinazzoli1, 2

1 CERN, Geneva, Genève, Switzerland
2 Università degli Studi Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy

On behalf of the LHCb ECAL Upgrade II R&D group


The LHCb experiment is a single-arm forward particle detector located at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. After the Upgrade II, it will run at a luminosity of up to 1.5 · 1034 cm−2s−1 to collect 300 fb−1 of data. A major revision of the LHCb Electromagnetic Calorimeter is required due to the increased particle densities and radiation doses. One option for the central part is a sampling spaghetti calorimeter (SPACAL) comprising radiation-hard crystal scintillators and a Tungsten absorber. A prototype was assembled with fibres of Cerium-doped YAG and GAGG. The Tungsten-Crystal SPACAL achieved time resolution of 32 ps at 5 GeV, and energy resolution comparable to the Shashlik technology used currently. This contribution presents the development of the SPACAL prototype, including scintillators and photodetectors studies, the test beam results, and Monte Carlo simulations iden- tifying the materials requirements in a high-rate environment.


This work was performed in the framework of the LHCb and Crystal Clear Collaboration.

Keywords: Calorimetry, High-Energy Physics Detectors, Garnets, Fibers, Scintillation-based particle detectors
12:15 PM N-20-03

Proof of concept for a scintillator powder calorimeter (#837)

G. Hull1, J. Lefrancois1, N. Semkiv1, 2, A. Kotenko1, 2, S. Barsuk1, M. - H. Schune1, D. Breton1, A. Cabrera1

1 Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS/IN2P3, IJCLab, Orsay, France
2 Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv, Ukraine


We will present the proof of concept for a next-generation Shashlyk-type calorimeter based on the use of the novel opaque scintillation technique, implemented in this scenario using scintillating powder.

At present, electromagnetic calorimeters based on the sampling technique generally provide good granularity for a limited cost but feature a rather poor photon energy resolution, compared to uniform crystals detectors, at energies below hundreds of GeV. For this reason, we investigated the possibility of using sub-millimetric-sized crystals for extremely fine sampling to improve the energy resolution.

This work is inspired by the new LiquidO detection technology which, breaking the conventional paradigm of transparency, makes use of opaque scintillation. With a short scattering length, scintillation light is stochastically confined in the region of its creation point and can be detected with wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers. In our case, we foresee the use of high-Z scintillator powder, for good stopping power, immersed in a transparent liquid in order to increase the density and better match the refraction index that controls the optical path, thus playing, in this case, the role of the diffusion material in the LiquidO systems.

In this communication, we will discuss the results of a Geant4 Monte-Carlo simulation performed to compare the energy resolution of a conventional lead-scintillator Shashlyk-type calorimeter and a powder one, with same geometry, composed of ZnWO4 grains immersed in a CH2I2 bath.

Furthermore, we will present the results of the tests aimed at demonstrating the possibility to collect blue light in a small volume of white powder by means of WLS fibers, readout by SiPMs. The amplitude and the time properties of the signals collected with the WLS fibers have been measured as a function of the distance from the light injection, for different filling mixture in the reference volume.

Keywords: Shashlyk calorimeter, LiquidO, Opaque scintillator, ZnWO4
12:30 PM N-20-04

Construction status of the Mu2e crystal calorimeter (#919)

S. Miscetti1, I. Sarra1

1 INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Italy

on behalf of the Mu2e-Calorimeter group. The final speaker will be selected before the conference


The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab searches for the neutrino-less conversion of a negative muon into an electron, with a distinctive signature of a mono-energetic electron with energy of 104.967 MeV. Mu2e aims to improve of four orders of magnitude with respect to the current best limit.

The calorimeter plays an important role to provide excellent particle identification capabilities and an online trigger filter while aiding the track reconstruction capabilities, asking for 10% energy resolution and 500 ps timing resolution for 100 Mev electrons. It consists of two disks, each one made by 674 un-doped CsI crystals, read out by two large area UV-extended SiPMs.

In this talk, we present the status of construction and QC performed on the produced crystals and photosensors, the development of the rad-hard electronics and the most important results of the irradiation tests done on the different components. Production of electronics is also started and we summarize the QC in progress on the analog electronics and on the integrated SIPM+FEE units. Construction of the mechanical parts are also well underway.  Status and plans for the final assembly are also described.

Moreover, a large calorimeter prototype (dubbed Module-0) has been tested with an electron beam between 60 and 120 MeV at different impact angles and the obtained results are summarized. Finally, a full vertical slice test with the final electronics is in progress on Module-0 at the Frascati Cosmic Rays test setup. First calibration results are shown.

AcknowledgmentWe are grateful for the vital contributions of the Fermilab staff and the technical staff of the participating institutions.
Keywords: Calorimeters, Silicon Photomultipliers, pure CsI crystals, Electronics
12:45 PM N-20-05

Characterization of sensors for the Barrel Timing Layer of the Mip Timing Detector of CMS (#593)

A. Ghezzi1

1 University of Milano-Bicocca, Physics, Milano, Italy

On behalf of the CMS collaboration


The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is undergoing an extensive Phase II upgrade program to prepare for the challenging conditions of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A new timing detector in CMS will measure minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) with a time resolution of 30-40 ps for MIP signals at a rate of 2.5 Mhit/s per channel at the beginning of HL-LHC operation. The precision time information from this MIP Timing Detector (MTD) will be used to reduce the effects of the high levels of pileup expected at the HL-LHC, bringing new capabilities to the CMS detector. The central barrel part of the MTD detector, Barrel Timing Layer (BTL), will be based on LYSO:Ce crystals read out with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) with TOFHIR ASICs for the front-end readout. The BTL will use elongated crystal bars, read out by a SiPM on each end of the crystal, in order to maximize detector performance within the constraints of space, cost, and channel count. This geometry enables to cover large surfaces with a minimal active area of the photodectors, thus reducing noise and power consumption.

We will present an overview of the MTD BTL design detailing the extensive ongoing prototyping studies, and we will present the characterisation of prototypes of the BTL sensors both with measurements in laboratory and with test beams with high energy protons and pions.

Keywords: HL-LHC, CMS, timing, LYSO:Ce, SiPM
1:00 PM N-20-06

Development of LuAG:Ce Ceramic Fibers for the RADiCAL Detector Concept (#623)

C. Hu1, L. Zhang1, R. - Y. Zhu1

1 Caltech, Pasadena, California, United States of America


HEP experiments at future hadron colliders, such as the HL-LHC and FCC-hh, require fast and radiation hard calorimetry. An ultra-compact RADiCAL EM calorimeter concept with radiation hard LYSO:Ce and LuAG:Ce as active sensors was proposed. In this paper we present an investigation on seven Φ1 × 40 mm LuAG:Ce ceramic fibers produced by laser heated pedestal growth method. The intensity of their photoluminescence was measured, and is compared to Y-11 and quartz capillaries/DSB wavelength shifters. Result of a beam-test at FNAL for a LYSO-LuAG-W cell will also be discussed.

AcknowledgmentThis work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of High Energy Physics program under Award Number DE-SC0011925.
Keywords: LYSO, LuAG, Calorimetry, Wavelength Shifter, Radiation Hard
1:15 PM N-20-07

High level performance of the RICH detector of the NA62 experiment at CERN (#970)

M. Piccini1, G. Anzivino4, 1, E. Jacopini3, 2, M. Lenti3, 2, A. Bizzeti5, 2, M. Pepe1, F. Bucci1, R. Lollini1, F. Brizioli4, 1, R. Volpe2, P. Cenci1, V. Duk1, M. Turisini2

1 INFN - Sezione di Perugia, Perugia, Italy
2 INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Firenze, Italy
3 Firenze University, Firenze, Italy
4 Perugia University, Perugia, Italy
5 Modena and Regio Emilia University, Modena, Italy


NA62 is the last generation kaon experiment at the CERN SPS aiming to measure the branching ratio of the ultra-rare K+π+νν decay with 10% accuracy.
The challenging aspect of NA62 is the suppression of background decay channels with branching ratios up to 10 orders of magnitude higher than the signal and with similar experimental signature: one of the main backgrounds comes from the K+μ+ν decay, therefore a highly powerful pion/muon separation is needed.
To this purpose, the NA62 experimental strategy requires, among other conditions, good particle identification (PID). A key element of PID in NA62 is the Ring-Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector, exploiting neon gas at atmospheric pressure as radiator medium. According to the NA62 requirements, the RICH identifies μ+ and π+ in the momentum range between 15 and 45 GeV/c with a muon rejection factor of 102. It also measures the arrival time of charged particles with a precision better than 100 ps and is one of the main components of the NA62 trigger system.
The RICH detector has been successfully operated during the 2016, 2017 and 2018 data taking periods of NA62, being essential in the analysis leading to the first evidence for the observation of the K+π+νν decay, achieving the best experimental precision ever reached in the measurement of the branching ratio. The main design aspects and operational characteristics of the detector will be described and a detailed report of its performance concerning the π/μ separation, directly measured with the data collected in 2018, will be presented for the first time, together with other preliminary results.

Keywords: RICH detectors, Particle identification, Kaon physics, Rare decays
1:30 PM N-20-08

Towards a design of a dedicated experiment for a multi-TeV Muon Collider (#1261)

N. Pastrone1, D. Lucchesi2, S. Pagan Griso3, S. Jindariani4

1 INFN, Torino, Torino, Italy
2 University and INFN, Padova, Padova, Italy
3 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Berkeley, United States of America
4 Fermilab, Illinois, Batavia, United States of America

the Muon Collider Physics and Detector Group


The design of a feasible multi-TeV Muon Collider facility is the mandate of the Design Study based at CERN and is considered with great interest along the presently on-going US SnowMass process. The physics potential of such a novel future collider is overwhelming, ranging from discovery searches to precision measurements in a single experiment. Despite the machine-design challenges it is possible to reach the uncharted territory of 10 TeV center-of-mass energy or higher while delivering luminosity up to a few 1035cm-2s-1. The experiment design, the detector technology choices along with the reconstruction tools are strongly affected by the presence of the Beam Induced Background (BIB) due to muon beams decay products interacting at the Machine Detector Interface (MDI). Full simulation studies at 1.5 and 3 TeV, adopting the CLIC detector technologies with important tracker modification to cope with BIB, are the starting point to optimize the detector design and proposing future dedicated R&Ds. Present results and future steps towards the design of an experiment meeting the requirements to take data in the energy regime of 10 TeV will be discussed.

Keywords: Muon Collider, Machine Detector Interface, Tracker, Calorimeter, Muon Detector

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