IEEE 2021 NSS MIC

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Scintillator II

Session chair: Yoshikawa , Akira (Tohoku University, Institute for Materials Research, Sendai, Japan); Motakef , Shariar (CapeSym, Inc., 6 Huron Drive, Natick, USA)
 
Shortcut: N-19
Date: Wednesday, 20 October, 2021, 11:45 AM - 1:45 PM
Room: NSS - 3
Session type: NSS Session

Contents

Click on an contribution to preview the abstract content.

11:45 AM N-19-01

Cs3Cu2I5:Tl,Li – Dual Mode Scintillator (#590)

J. Glodo1, L. Stand2, E. van Loef1, M. Koschan2, M. Zhuravleva2, 3, C. L. Melcher2, K. Shah1

1 Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc (RMD), Reseach, Watertown, Massachusetts, United States of America
2 University of Tennessee, Scintillation Materials Research Center, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of America
3 University of Tennessee, Department of Material Science, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of America

Abstract

Cs3Cu2I5:Tl (CCI) has recently emerged as a promising gamma-ray scintillator with properties comparable to CsI:Tl but with much better energy resolution - as good as 3.3% (FWHM) at 662 keV.  The light yield of this scintillator has been measured to be as high as 98,000 ph/MeV with the primary decay time of 840 ns.  To further enhance the capabilities of this scintillator, we have explored an approach to make CCI sensitive to neutrons.  Since the composition includes monovalent ions such as Cs and Cu, we have investigated isovalent substitution with monovalent Li ions for thermal neutron detection.  The neutron capture reaction on Li-6 ions provides charged particles with the total energy of 4.8 MeV that typically produces a clear full energy peak in the pulse height spectra.  Following this reasoning, we grew crystals with 15% of Li substituting the Cs and Cu ions.  The crystals showed, as expected, a clear neutron full energy peak at around 2.7 MeV (gamma equivalent energy).  In addition, we observed that the scintillation decay curves under gamma and neutron excitations differ, where the neutrons excitations produce faster decays.  This allowed us to perform pulse shape discrimination with the figure-of-merit value of 3, which is comparable to separation of gamma and neutron signals observed in the Elpasolite scintillators.  In this presentation we will provide characterization of the main scintillation properties of the Li containing CCI crystals grown by our teams.

AcknowledgmentThis work has been supported by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency, under competitively awarded contracts HDTRA1-19-1-0014 and HDTRA1-20-C-0039.  This support does not constitute an express or implied endorsement on the part of the Government.  DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release. 
Keywords: Cs3Cu2I5, scintillator, dual-mode scintillator
12:00 PM N-19-02

Latest Crystal Growth Progress of Ce-doped Tl2LiYCl6 Dual Mode Scintillator Detector (#651)

R. Hawrami1, E. Ariesanti1, A. Burger1, H. Parkhe1, P. Sellin2

1 Fisk University, Life and Physical Sciences/Physics, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America
2 University of Surrey, Physics, Guildford, United Kingdom

Abstract

Scintillators play an important role in radiation detection and imaging. Novel Tl-based elpasolite scintillators such as Ce-doped Tl2LiYCl6 (TLYC) have been developed as excellent Tl-based dual mode gamma and neutron detectors. This paper presents a successful high yield growth and characterization of a large diameter TLYC crystal. As processed and hermetically packaged samples are characterized for their gamma-ray energy resolutions, light yields, non-proportionality behaviors and decay times.

AcknowledgmentThis work is supported by Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) IIRM-URA Cooperative Agreement # HDTRA 1-20-2-0002.
Keywords: Crystal growth, Gamma-ray detector, Neutron detector, Scintillation detector, Thallium-based elpasolite crystals
12:15 PM N-19-03

Development of Multi-mode Organic Glass Scintillators for Nuclear Physics and Security Applications (#1043)

U. Shirwadkar1, E. van Loef1, M. McClish1, J. Glodo1, K. Shah1, P. Feng2, L. Nguyen2, R. Zegers3, J. Pereira3

1 Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., Watertown, Massachusetts, United States of America
2 Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California, United States of America
3 Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America

Abstract

In a collaborative effort, Radiation Monitoring Devices (RMD), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and Michigan State University (MSU) are developing metal-loaded Organic Glass Scintillators (OGS) that offer fast neutron detection, gamma-ray spectroscopy, and pulse shape discrimination for nuclear physics and nuclear security applications. We have fabricated high quality clear samples of tin-loaded OGS via melt-casting method. In terms of light output and Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) they are comparable to transstilbene. The added advantages of gamma-ray spectroscopy, scalability to large sizes, and low cost make these OGS highly suitable for nuclear security applications. Low energy thresholds for PSD and fast decay make it highly suitable for neutron experiments at FRIB. In this paper we will present our results of investigations of these novel metal-loaded organic glass scintillators.

AcknowledgmentThis work has been supported by DTRA contracts # HDTRA1-20-P-0007 and HDTRA2-21-C-0004. This support does not constitute an express or implied endorsement on the part of the Government. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release: distribution unlimited
Keywords: organic glass scintillator, tin-loaded, multimode, nuclear security, nuclear physics
12:30 PM N-19-04

Bulk Growth and Performance of Cs2HfCl6, Tl2HfCl6, and Tl2ZrCl6 Intrinsic Scintillators (#659)

R. Hawrami1, E. Ariesanti1, V. Buliga1, H. Parkhe1, A. Burger1, S. Motakef2

1 Fisk University, Life and Physical Sciences/Physics, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America
2 CapeSym, Inc., Natick, Massachusetts, United States of America

Abstract

This paper reports on recently successful growths of single, transparent 1.5-inch diameter Cs2HfCl6 (CHC) and 1 inch diameter Tl2HfCl6 (THC) and Tl2ZrCl6 (TZC) scintillators crystals using the vertical Bridgman method as well as their radiometric and scintillation performance and properties. Energy resolution of 4.0% (FWHM) at 662 keV has been obtained for CHC and 4.1% and 4.2% for each THC and TZC, respectively. This paper will cover gamma-ray non-proportionality, light yield, and decay times for CHC, THC and TZC, respectively.

AcknowledgmentThis work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy SBIR Grant #DE-SC0015733 and Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) STTR Grant # HDTRA1-19-P0017.
Keywords: Cs-based scintillator, Hf-based scintillator, Intrinsic scintillator, High light yield, Tl-based scintillator
12:45 PM N-19-05

Comparison of the Optical and the Scintillation Properties of Tl2CeCl5 and Tl2LaCl5:Ce Single Crystals (#1005)

D. R. Onken1, D. Perrodin1, E. D. Bourret1, F. Moretti1

1 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, California, United States of America

Abstract

Optical and scintillation properties of Tl2CeCl5 single crystals are presented and compared to those of Tl2LaCl5:Ce, to evidence possible dissimilarities. The results clearly show clear differences in the radioluminescence spectra with the Tl2CeCl5 slightly shifted toward longer wavelengths and only one of the Ce3+ doublet clearly visible. The luminescence decays obtained by pulsed x-ray excitation are characterized by a faster main decay component for Tl2CeCl5 compared to Tl2LaCl5:Ce.

Acknowledgment

This material is based upon work supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency under HDTRA19-31194. This support does not constitute an express or implied endorsement on the part of the United States Government.

Keywords: luminescence, scintillator, Tl2CeCl5, Tl2LaCl5
1:00 PM N-19-06

Scintillation properties of Ce3+ doped Cs2LiLaBr6-xIx (#1237)

L. M. Stand1, M. Koschan1, E. Van Loef4, L. Soundara Pandian4, J. Glodo4, C. Melcher1, 3, M. Zhuravleva1, 2, J. Tower4, K. Shah4

1 University of Tennessee, Scintillation Materials Research Center, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of America
2 University of Tennessee, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Knxoville, Tennessee, United States of America
3 University of Tennessee, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Knoxville, United States of America
4 Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, United States of America

Abstract

Dual mode scintillators play an important role in radiation detection systems for homeland security applications where both gamma-rays and neutrons need to be detected simultaneously. To meet industry standards for Radiation Isotope Identifier Devices (RIIDs), dual mode scintillators must offer excellent cost-to-performance ratio with energy resolutions below 3% at 662 keV and high detection efficiency with well-defined gamma-neutron pulse shape discrimination (PSD) capabilities. Cubic elpasolites such as Cs2LiYCl6:Ce and Cs2LiLa(Br,Cl)6:Ce have garnered significant interest as potential replacements for the current technology used in RIIDs. They have excellent PSD and exceptional light yield proportionality, but their energy resolution is around 3.0% at best. In this work, we present our efforts to compositionally engineer the bandgap of Cs2LiLaX6 (X = Br, I) to reach energy resolutions below 3% by replacing some of the matrix bromine atoms with iodine. Single crystals (Ø12 mm) of Cs2LiLaBr5I1 and Cs2LiLaBr4I2 with varying cerium concentrations were grown by the vertical Bridgman technique and samples of various sizes were characterized. A slight red shift in X-ray excited emission was observed with increasing Ce3+ and iodine concentrations. To date, the best performance was measured for Cs2LiLaBr4I2:Ce 5% with a light yield of 55,000 ph/MeV, an energy resolution of 2.7% at 662 keV, and a figure of merit for gamma-neutron PSD of 2.7. The determination of scintillation property trends with respect to activator and Br/I concentrations is in progress.

Acknowledgment

This work has been supported by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency, under competitively awarded contract HDTRA1-20-C-0052. This support does not constitute an express or implied endorsement on the part of the Government. Distribution A: Approved for Public Release.

Keywords: Crystal growth, Scintillator, Elpasolites, Neutron detection, Radiation detection
1:15 PM N-19-07

Scintillation properties for Cs2HfBr6-based crystals (#1415)

C. Fujiwara1, S. Kodama2, S. Kurosawa3, 1, A. Yamaji3, 1, Y. Ohashi3, 1, K. Kamata4, 1, H. Sato3, 1, Y. Yokota1, S. Toyoda3, 1, M. Yoshino1, T. Hanada1, A. Yoshikawa1, 3

1 Tohoku University, Institute for Materials Reserch, Sendai, Japan
2 Saitama University, Faculty of science and engineering, Saitama, Japan
3 New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Sendai, Japan
4 C&A Corporation, Sendai, Japan

Abstract

Novel scintillators with high light output and red/NIR-emission are required for the decommissioning of nuclear plants. Cesium hafnium iodide (CHI) was reported as a novel red-emitting, and some mixture anion materials were reported to be high light output or fast decay time.  Therefore, we studied on the scintillation properties for anion mixture samples such as Cs2Hf(Cl, Br)6. The samples were grown by the the vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger method and each phase for the crystals was verified as a single phase with powder X-ray diffraction. The photoluminescence excitation and emission properties were measured with an absolute Pl-quantum-yield spectrometer.In addition, radioluminescence for the samples were also measured with a CCD spectrometer. The results show some samples had the emissions in the red region  (around 700nm), as well as CHI, have. Moreover, temperature dependences of the emission intensities were investigated in the Synchrotron facilities.

Keywords: Single crystalline scintillator, Red-emitting scintillator
1:30 PM N-19-08

Non-Hygroscopic High-Performance Scintillators (#1420)

S. Swain1, P. Becla1, M. Hackett1, I. Khodyuk1, S. Motakef1, R. Hawrami2, E. Ariesanti2, A. Burger2

1 Capesym, Inc., Natick, Massachusetts, United States of America
2 Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America

Abstract

A new class of high-performance scintillators are being developed which are non-hygroscopic and can, thus, be grown and fabricated in open air, significantly reducing the production cost of scintillators. Cesium hafnium chloride (CHC) and cesium copper iodide (CCI) are outstanding members of this class, both of
which exhibit a high energy resolution of 3-3.5% at 662keV. CHC is also an exceptional candidate for commercial growth of large volume crystals by the Czochralski process due to its cubic structure and low volatility of the molten phase. Precursor purification, crystal growth, scintillation performance, and
potential for further advances in performance of these materials will be discussed.

AcknowledgmentThis material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA Award Number DE-SC0015733
 
Keywords: Scintillators, gamma detection, cubic crystals, high energy resolution

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