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Analog & Digital, DAQ, Computing, Imaging

Session chair: Takahashi , Hiroyuki (University of Tokyo, Institute of Engineering Innovation, Bunkyo, Japan); Maehata , Keisuke
Shortcut: N-10
Date: Wednesday, 20 October, 2021, 7:00 AM - 8:45 AM
Room: NSS - 2
Session type: NSS Session


Click on an contribution to preview the abstract content.

7:00 AM N-10-01

Firmware development of the PCI-express-based high-speed readout board in the upgrade of the Belle II DAQ system (#464)

Y. - T. Lai1, M. Bessner2, D. Biswas3, D. Charlet4, O. Hartbrich2, T. Higuchi1, R. Itoh5, E. Jules4, P. Kapusta6, T. Kunigo5, M. Nakao5, K. Nishimura2, E. Plaige4, H. Purwar2, P. Robbe4, R. Sugiura7, S. Y. Suzuki5, M. Taurigna4, G. Varner2, S. Yamada5, Q. - D. Zhou8

1 University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Kashiwa, Japan
2 University of Hawaii, the Dept. of Phys. & Astr., Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America
3 University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America
4 Laboratoire de Physique des Deux Infinis Irene Joliot-Curie, Orsay, France
5 KEK, IPNS, Tsukuba, Japan
6 The Henryk Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland
7 University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
8 Nagoya University, Institute of Advanced Research and Kobayashi- Maskawa Institute, Nagoya, Japan

On behalf of Belle II Collaboration


The Belle II experiment with SuperKEKB accelerator has started beam collision since 2018. With a higher luminosity, the target of Belle II is to improve the measurement of rare B meson decays and to probe for new physics. The present DAQ system in Belle II is designed to operate under the maximum trigger rate of 30 kHz at the expected peak luminosity, and its stability has been confirmed n the early phase of the operation so far. Considering the difficulty of maintenance and bottleneck limited by the present readout system, however, Belle II DAQ group is preparing an upgrade by using PCI-express-based readout board (PCIe40) which is capable of a higher data transmission rate up to 100 Gbps. PCIe40 board is based on an Intel Arria 10 field-programmable gate array (FPGA) chip, 48 GBT (GigaBit Transceiver) serial links, and PCI-express DMA architecture. The PCIe40 firmware for the Belle II experiment needs to have many functionalities, such as "home brew" Belle2Link transmission protocol to detector Front-End, interface to trigger timing distribution system, data processing logic for first-level event building, and DMA interface, etc. This paper describes the development of each item and performance tests with various  Belle II detectors' Front-End electronics, as well as the plan of integrating the new readout system in the Belle II global DAQ system.

Keywords: Field programmable gate arrays, Data acquisition, High energy physics instrumentation.
7:10 AM N-10-02

Hardware Demonstrator of the MDT Trigger Processor for the ATLAS first-level muon trigger at the HL-LHC (#282)

D. Cieri1

1 Munich MPI, München, Germany

This is a submission on behalf of ATLAS TDAQ speakers committee. The presenter will be assigned later once we are notified this contribution is accepted.


The novel MDT Trigger Processor (MDTTP) is a fundamental component of the ATLAS first-level muon trigger upgrade, designed to meet High-Luminosity LHC requirements. The MDTTP blade will be implemented as an ATCA blade compatible with the Apollo ATCA platform. The board will comprise two modules, the Service Module, common to all Apollo applications, providing the required infrastructure; and the application-specific Command Module, executing all the processing and external communication tasks.
A hardware demonstrator for the the MDTTP Command Module has been designed and built. The demonstrator includes two large FPGAs, high-speed FireFly optical transceivers and other peripheral hardware. The demonstrator can be operated both in a standalone bench mode or in a ATCA shelf, connected to the Service Module. It supports various clocking scenarios and a large number of I/O data connections.
We present here the results of various demonstrator tests, together with the future development plans. The demonstrator serves as a baseline for the upcoming ATLAS MDTTP prototype, whose design will also be presented.

Keywords: Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture, Field-Programmable Gate Arrays, High-Speed Optical Transceivers, First-Level Trigger
7:20 AM N-10-03

Hog (HDL on git): a collaborative management tool to handle Git-based HDL repository (#41)

D. Cieri1, N. V. Biesuz2, A. Camplani3, N. Giangiacomi4, F. Gonnella5, A. Peck6

1 Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, Bavaria, Germany
2 INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
3 Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark
4 University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
5 University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
6 Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America


Hog (HDL on git) is a novel open-source management tool, designed to handle git-based HDL repositories, aiming to simplify HDL project development, as well as its maintenance and versioning, by exploiting git, as a collaborative and comprehensive tool, guaranteeing synthesis and placing reproducibility and binary file traceability.
This is ensured by linking each produced binary file to a specific git commit, embedding the git-commit hash (SHA) into the binary file via HDL generics stored into firmware registers. Hog is compatible with all major HDL Integrated Development environment (ISE) platform, such as Xilinx Vivado, ISE (PlanAhead) and Intel Quartus.
Hog is also integrated with the Gitlab Continuous Integration (CI), which can be automatically configured to simulate, synthesise and build the design. Exploiting the Gitlab Merge Request workflow, Hog-CI validates changes to the code, before that they can be merged into the main branch of the repository. Hog-CI implements an automatic tagging of the repository, generating also Gitlab releases with the produced binary files and a summary of the built HDL projects.

Keywords: HDL, git, Gitlab, FPGA, Firmware
7:30 AM N-10-04

The new Digitizer ReAdout Controller (DIRAC-V2) of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter at Fermilab (#879)

E. Pedreschi1, F. Cervelli1, S. Ceravolo4, G. Corradi4, E. Diociaiuti4, S. Difalco1, S. Donati2, S. Giovannella4, F. Happacher4, M. Martini3, S. Miscetti4, L. Morescalchi1, D. Pasciuto1, F. Raffaelli1, I. Sarra4, F. Spinella1, A. Gioiosa1, A. Taffara1

1 Italian Institute for nuclear Physics, Section of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
2 University of Pisa, Department of Physics, Pisa, Italy
3 Guglielmo Marconi University, Roma, Italy
4 Italian Institute for nuclear Physics, Section of Frascati, Frascati, Germany


This paper describes the development of a fast waveform digitizer designed to operate in the hostile environment of the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab. The Digitizer ReAdout Controller (DIRAC) will be the heart of the electromagnetic calorimeter data acquisition system. The calorimeter consists of two identical matrices of 670 Caesium Iodide (CsI) crystals readout by Silicon Photo Multiplier (SiPM). The 20-channel DIRAC performs 200 MHz sampling of the SiPM signals shaped and transmitted by the front-end electronics. The DIRAC project was made particularly challenging by the harsh Mu2e operational conditions, which include a Total Ionizing Dose (TID) of 12 krad, a neutron fluence of 5x1010 n/cm2 @ 1 MeVeq (Si)/y, a 1T magnetic field, and a level of vacuum of 10-4 Torr. At the time of writing this paper, we are not aware of the existence of a waveform digitizer with similar characteristics and performance which can operate in comparable hostile conditions. We report on the DIRAC specifications, architecture and design, as well as on the results of the prototype qualification and performance tests.

AcknowledgmentWe are grateful for the vital contributions of  EU  Horizon  2020 Research and Innovation Program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 690385, No. 734303, and No. 822185
Keywords: Analog to digital converter, Data Acquisition, Digitizer, Electronics Readout, Radiation hard
7:40 AM N-10-05

Optimization Simulations for a Gamma-Ray Calibration Standard for a Novel Cyclic Neutron Activation Analysis Pneumatic System at the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (#974)

C. A. Lani1, B. D. Pierson2, S. M. Lyons3, M. Flaska1

1 Penn State, Ken and Mary Alice Lindquist Department of Nuclear Engineering, State College, Pennsylvania, United States of America
2 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Energy and Environment, Richland, Washington, United States of America
3 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, National Security, Richland, Washington, United States of America

This work has been funded by the Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Grant #12393672.


For new experimental setups, the initial testing and calibrations can become expensive and time consuming without prior optimization. However, these possible issues can be mitigated using realistic modeling and simulations. Specifically, an experiment can be performed virtually using realistic simulations and the expected experimental results can be predicted a priori. At the Penn State’s Breazeale Reactor, a new pneumatic transfer system has been developed for the detection and characterization of short-lived fission fragments to enhance existing nuclear data. The system accomplishes this task by transporting samples cyclically between an assortment of gamma-ray/neutron detectors and the reactor core with sub-second transit times. To ensure a fully optimized gamma-ray calibration standard is used for this system, a simulation model is being developed using Geant4 and its module that can calculate relevant cascade summing corrections (G4CSC). The predictions made with these simulations will allow us to optimize the irradiation sample characteristics and our gamma-ray/neutron detection system. In the full paper, the experimental data will be compared to the simulations to determine all important discrepancies, and to validate the developed simulation tools.

Keywords: Pneumatic system, Cyclic Neutron Activation Analysis, Short-Lived Fission Fragments, Geant4 Simulations
7:50 AM N-10-06

Performance of Partial Volume Alpha Particle Scintillators for Associated Particle Imaging (#840)

C. Delzer1, J. Cates4, N. Cherepy3, S. Payne3, S. Alcorn1, X. Wen1, B. Musico2, C. Redding1, K. Joshi1, G. Egland2, J. Hayward1

1 University of Tennessee, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of America
2 University of Tennessee, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of America
3 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, United States of America
4 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, United States of America


Associated Particle Imaging (API) is a highly versatile tool, able to identify geometry and material information of interrogated objects for contraband detection and diagnostics. The system records alpha particles created during deuterium and tritium (D-T) fusion, allowing it to use the timing and directional information of generated neutrons on an event-by-event basis. To yield the highest quality information, it is important for the alpha, or associated particle, detector to precisely tag the arrival time and position of tag these alpha particles at a high rate while remaining insensitive to other backgrounds. In this paper, we describe novel ways to fabricate high performance associated particle detectors, as well as measurements of the alpha timing resolution of each of the scintillators when read out by a fast SiPM with custom readout electronics. It is also shown that the designed partial volume alpha detectors have low sensitivity to low energy x- or gamma rays like those produced within the D-T generator.


Acknowledgment: "This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration through the Nuclear Science andSecurity Consortium under Award Number(s) DE-NA0003180 a n d/or DE-NA0000979."

Keywords: Alpha Detector, Associated Particle Imaging, Radiation Detection, Fast Timing Detector, SiPM
8:00 AM N-10-07

Characterisation of GS20 using epithermal neutrons and high-energy gamma-rays in borehole logging: A simulation approach (#989)

A. Bala1, 2, D. Jenkins1, J. Bordes1

1 University of York, Department of Physics, York, United Kingdom
2 Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Department of Physics, Sokoto, Nigeria


The oil and gas industries uses neutron porosity tool to estimate the hydrogen index during logging activities. This tool consist of two thermal neutron detectors, usually 3He tubes and a fast neutron source. As the fast neutrons propagate into the rock formation, they are slowed down to thermal energies. However, not all the fast neutrons get fully thermalised, some epithermal neutrons still makes it to the detectors. Contribution due to these epithermal neutrons are not utilised when 3He tubes are used. Furthermore, the high-energy gamma-rays emitted by the neutron source interact with the rock formation through pair production. In this work, we present the potential of a lithium-loaded glass detector (GS20) to provide useful information from both the epithermal neutrons and the high-energy γ-rays in a single logging tool. The results presented shows that lithium-loaded glass scintillator can provide information about the hydrogen index and the density of the material in the rock formation.

AcknowledgmentMy acknowledgements goes to Nigeria government through petroleum technology development fund (PTDF) who fully funded my research and the the co-authors for their great contributions.
Keywords: Borehole logging, 3He tube, NaI(Tl), rock formation
8:10 AM N-10-08

Modelization of Solid State Detectors using Advanced Multi-Thread Code and Comparison with Measurements (#783)

A. Loi1, D. Brundu1, A. Cardini1, A. Lai1, A. Contu1, G. M. Cossu1, B. G. Siddi2, S. Vecchi2, A. Lampis1, M. Garau1, M. M. Obertino3

1 INFN, sezione Cagliari, Physics, Monserrato, Italy
2 INFN, sezione Ferrara, Physics, Ferrara, Italy
3 INFN, sezione Torino, Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali ed Alimentari, Torino, Italy


Computational simulation occupies an important role in the development of solid state detectors. The idea to replicate virtually the entire detector chain, from energy deposition within the sensor to the final digitization of the collected data, allows a deep understanding of the detector physics and front-end electronics performance, with the possibility to perform changes before fabrication submission.

An important aspect of detector simulation is the compromise between the detail level of the simulation and the computing time required. Advanced simulation packages, such as TCAD, provide very detailed sensor physics but lack in sufficient short simulation time and a proper description of energy release within the material. At the same time, developing a dedicated simulation by repeating the same steps already implemented in existing tools makes the calculus redundant and time inefficient.

The TimeSPOT Code for Detector Simulation (TCoDe) and TimeSPOT Front-end Booster (TFBoost) are specifically developed to support already existing simulation software such as TCAD and GEANT4 by only computing the transient simulations, which are the most time consuming and statistically relevant steps. Computation is performed by using advanced CPU and GPU multi-thread architecture.

This work describes an overview of the latest updates and functionalities of TCoDe and TFBoost, with a focus on the computational performances at very high statistics above 100.000 events. Latest applications and comparisons with test beam data are also discussed.

AcknowledgmentThis work was supported by the Fifth Scientific Commission (CSN5) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Project TimeSPOT (CSN5 open-call contest, 2017).
Keywords: detector simulation, TCAD, 3D silicon sensors, fast timing, TCODE and TFBOOST
8:20 AM N-10-09

Performance Characteristics of the NRL2 Front-end ASIC with High-Purity Germanium Strip Detectors (#1103)

J. M. Roberts1, 2, S. Boggs1, 2, G. De Geronimo4, A. Lowell2, B. Mochizuki2, J. Tomsick2, C. Sleator3, E. A. Wulf3

1 Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, California, United States of America
2 Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America
3 Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., United States of America
4 Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States of America


Gamma-ray physics and astrophysics is now a mature science that is driving significant development in detector technologies and mixed-signal processing. As the science requirements push for higher channel density while maintaining low-power, low-noise, front-end electronics, the use of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) is becoming increasingly necessary in order to meet the performance demands of next-generation instruments. The NRL2 (Naval Research Laboratory 2) is a recently developed 32-channel front-end ASIC that features low-power, low-noise charge preamplification with 4 configurable gain settings, dual fixed fast and configurable slow shapers per channel for optimized timing and energy resolution, trimmable per-channel discrimination, time-to-analog conversion, and peak detect output. The NRL2 has been instrumented with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) dual-sided strip detector with 0.5 mm strip pitch. We report energy resolution capabilities of 2.4 keV FWHM at 59.54 keV with a gain setting of 18.4 mV/fC and a peaking time of 2 us and discuss preliminary results of our currently ongoing research.

AcknowledgmentThis work was sponsored by NASA (United States)NNH18ZDA001N APRA and NASA Explorer’s contract80GSFC21C0059.
Keywords: Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), Gamma-Ray, High-Purity Germanium Detector (HPGe), Mixed-Signal, Compton

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