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Scintillator I

Session chair: Cherepy , Nerine J. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, USA); Kurosawa , Shunsuke (Tohoku University, New Industry Creation Hatchery Cente, Sendai, Japan)
Shortcut: N-02
Date: Tuesday, 19 October, 2021, 9:15 AM - 11:15 AM
Room: NSS - 2
Session type: NSS Session


Click on an contribution to preview the abstract content.

9:15 AM N-02-01

Feasibility Study on Direction-Sensitive Dark Matter Search using Tungstate Crystals (#1259)

S. Kurosawa1, 2, A. Yamaji1, 2, H. Sekiya3, K. Ichimura4

1 Tohoku University, New Industry Creation Hatchery Cente, Sendai, Japan
2 Tohoku University, Institute for Materials Research, Sendai, Japan
3 University of Tokyo, Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, Hida, Japan
4 Tohoku University, Research Center for Neutrino Science, Sendai, Japan


  One of the candidates for the Dark Matters are weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) which are expected to form a halo around our Galaxy. Our Solar System is rotating around the center of the Galaxy, and we expect that the Earth should experience a “wind” (named 'WIMP wind') against the direction of the rotation, where is the direction to Cygnus. Thus, to show the evidence of Dark Mater, we tried detecting the WIMPs wind from Cygnus direction, and a direction sensitive detector is required to obtain high sensitivity.
  Up to now, several groups have developed such direction-sensitive detectors using gaseous detectors, while gaseous ones have low detection efficiency. Some team reports that ZnWO4 can detect the direction of incident particles due to anisotropic. However, the mechanism has been not revealed. A Mg-admix ZnWO4 crystal is expected to have a different lattice constant from a normal ZnWO4, and anisotropic properties can be changed. Thus, we compare scintillation and anisotropic properties for ZnWO4 and Mg-admix ZnWO4 in this paper.
  We grew ZnWO4 and (Zn, Mg)WO4 single crystals with diameters of ~0.5 inches grown by the Czochralski process. The bulk crystals were cut to cubic shape samples with sizes of 10 mm x 10 mm x 10mm, and each cutting surface corresponded to each orientation: approximately (100), (010), (001). Using this sample, we find anisotropic for both samples, while the anisotropic effect for Mg-admix made smaller than Mg-free one.

Keywords: darkmatter search
9:30 AM N-02-02

Precious metal crucible-free bulk single crystal growth of Ce : Gd3(Ga,Al)5O12 single crystal from the melt; its optical and scintillation properties (#1393)

A. Yoshikawa1

1 Tohoku University, IMR, Sendai-shi, Japan


GAGG crystals were grown in air without use of precious metal crucible using pulling up from the cold container. Such technique gives the opportunity to avoid growth problems typical for traditional Czochralski method. After further adjustment of growth technology, the pulling from the cold container technique can become the competitor of traditional Czochrlaski technique for the production of bulk GAGG scintillator crystals.

Keywords: GAGG, precious metal free, skull melt method, scintillator, oxide
9:45 AM N-02-03

Light Output and Time Response of Caesium Lead Halide Nanocomposite Perovskite Scintillators (#483)

J. G. O'Neill1, S. S. Alghamdi1, S. H. Bennett1, I. H. Braddock1, C. Crean2, C. Shenton-Taylor1, M. P. Taggart1, S. Richards3, M. D. Wilson3, P. J. Sellin1

1 University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford, United Kingdom
2 University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford, United Kingdom
3 Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, United Kingdom


This paper discusses work performed in the development and characterisation of a new class of nanocomposite organic scintillator, loading caesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) into a scintillating plastic matrix. Prototype nanocomposite scintillators have been produced, and the light output and time response characterised for a range of mass loadings and NC sizes. The effect of loading these NCs into a transparent material is discussed in terms of optical transmission and light yield as a function of wavelength. We compare the results obtained from two commercial vendors of perovskite NCs, and discuss the optimization carried out to improve the consistency of the particle size and its effect on the light output and X-ray sensitivity.

AcknowledgmentAuthor J.O’N acknowledges studentship funding from STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the University of Surrey.
Keywords: perovskite, nanocrystal, inorganic, x-ray detector, sensitivity
10:00 AM N-02-04

Bi2O3 nanoparticle-loaded plastic scintillator for high energy X-ray detection (#78)

A. Toda1, S. Kishimoto2

1 Tokyo Printing Ink Mfg. Co., Ltd., Technical Div, Saitama, Japan
2 High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Tsukuba, Japan


We fabricated fast scintillators by using Bi2O3 nanoparticles loaded into a plastic scintillator. Such a heavy metal oxide loaded PLS will be useful for measurements of high-energy X-rays up to a high count-rate > 107 s-1. The Bi2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized using surface modification with aliphatic carboxylic acid from a starting material of triphenylbismuthine. Up to 40 wt% surface-modified Bi2O3 nanoparticle-loaded plastic scintillator (Bi-PLS, 22.7 wt% elemental Bismuth in the plastic) successfully maintained transparency, polymerized by mixing monomer, consisting mainly of styrene or vinyltoluene, and 2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-5-(4-biphenylyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (butyl-PBD) as fluorophore. We tested the Bi-PLS (8 mm in diameter, 3 mm thick) mounted on a photomultiplier tube (PMT) using synchrotron X-ray beam at beamline BL-14A of the Photon Factory (PF). The detection efficiency at 67.41 keV reached 27.6 ± 0.2% using a 40 wt% Bi-PLS. The time resolution (full width at half maximum) of 0.25 ± 0.06 ns were obtained using a 20 wt% Bi-PLS. We will present the detection efficiency and light output and time resolution results of Bi-PLS at 73.0 keV at the conference.

Keywords: fast scintillator, X-ray, nanoparticles, detection efficiency, light output
10:15 AM N-02-05

Response of various inorganic scintillators to high energy neutrons (#298)

R. S. Woolf1, B. F. Phlips1, A. L. Hutcheson1, L. J. Mitchell1, E. A. Wulf1

1 U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, United States of America


We discuss the results from a series of beam test campaigns designed to study the response of high-energy neutron emission on a variety of inorganic scintillators. Tests were completed at the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory located on the campus of UC-Davis. The inorganic scintillation detectors used were elpasolites (CLLB, CLLBC, CLYC, and TLYC), more traditional inorganic scintillators (LaBr3:Ce and CeBr3), and ceramic scintillators (GAGG). The results demonstrate that elpasolites show the ability to detect and measure high-energy neutrons while the more traditional inorganic scintillators show little-to-no response at high energies. We will present our results from each detector tested, interpretation of the data, as well as discuss the importance of using these materials for high-energy neutron detection in future applications.


This work was sponsored by the Chief of Naval Research.

Keywords: Fast neutrons, Inorganic Scintillator, Pulse Shape Discrimination
10:30 AM N-02-06

Advanced Inorganic Halide Ceramic Scintillators (#665)

R. Hawrami1, E. Ariesanti2, A. Burger2

1 Xtallized Intelligence, Inc., Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America
2 Fisk University, Life and Physical Sciences/Physics, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America


This paper presents an equipment design and technique to produce inorganic halide ceramic scintillators Cs2HfCl6 (CHC) and Tl2HfCl6 (THC). Improvements and optimization of CHC and THC ceramic scintillator fabrication are gauged by monitoring the energy resolution and peak position of 137Cs full energy peak at 662 keV.  With a 1-inch diameter CHC ceramic scintillator, energy resolution of 5.4% (FWHM), while with a 16-mm diameter THC ceramic scintillator, energy resolution of 5.1% (FWHM) and light yield of 27,800 ph/MeV are achieved. Decay times of 0.6 μs (21%) and 3.0 μs (79%) are measured for CHC and 0.3 μs (13%) and 1.0 μs (87%) for THC. Both ceramic CHC and THC scintillators have similarly good proportionality data when compared to their single crystal counterparts.

AcknowledgmentThis work was supported by U.S. Department of Energy SBIR Grant # DE-SC0020816.
Keywords: Ceramic scintillators, Cesium hafnium halides, Thallium hafnium halides, Inorganic halide crystals
10:45 AM N-02-07

Characterization of BGSO for crystal calorimetry of future colliders (#798)

R. Cala'1, 2, N. Kratochwil1, 3, L. Martinazzoli1, 2, M. T. Lucchini2, S. Gundacker4, E. Galenin5, I. Gerasymov5, 6, O. Sidletskiy5, 6, M. Nikl7, E. Auffray1

1 European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland
2 Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy
3 University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
4 PMI ExMI RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
5 Institute for Scintillation Materials NAS of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine
6 Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Institute of Physics, Bydgoszcz, Poland
7 Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Prague, Czech Republic


Bismuth germanate (BGO) is a well known high density scintillating material widely used in many applications such as high energy physics and medical imaging. Bismuth silicate (BSO) features properties similar to BGO in terms of stopping power and Cherenkov photon yield with a lower scintillation light output but faster effective decay time. This makes BSO more attractive than BGO for some applications. Mixed crystals such as BGSO make it possible to optimize decay time and light yield based on the detector needs.
We performed a characterization campaign of the optical and scintillation properties of two sets of Bi4(Gex Si1−x)3O12 (x varying from 0 to 1) mixed crystals. A coincidence time resolution (CTR) of 259 ± 8 ps FWHM was measured for a 6 × 6 × 0.7 mm3 plate with x = 0.5, while better CTR of 208 ± 2 ps was measured for a 2 × 2 × 3 mm3 pixel (x = 0.4). In addition we demonstrated the possibility to efficiently separate the Cherenkov and scintillation light produced in a pure BSO sample. Such a technique could be exploited in a crystal-based dual readout calorimeter to improve the energy resolution for hadronic showers and jets.

AcknowledgmentThis work was performed in the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration. The authors thank Dominique Deyrail from CERN EP-CMX for the preparation of the samples.
Keywords: Mixed scintillators, dual-readout calorimetry, CTR, Cherenkov emission
11:00 AM N-02-08

Development of Long Wavelength Fluorescent Dyes for Scintillation and Wave Shifting Applications in Particle Physics Detectors (#902)

R. Ruchti1, M. Vigneault1, Y. Wan1, C. Hurlbut2, C. Kelley3, Z. Poulos3

1 University of Notre Dame, Department of Physics, Notre Dame, Indiana, United States of America
2 Eljen Technology, Sweetwater, Texas, United States of America
3 MCPHS University, Department of Chemistry, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America


Long wavelength fluorescent dyes are being developed and tested, based upon and evolved from the Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer (ESIPT) dye 3-hydroxyflavone (3HF). The benefit of ESIPT is the very large Stokes’ Shift between excitation and emission in such fluorescent materials, allowing for significantly reduced optical self-absorption . The new dyes have excitation in the 330 < λ < 390 nm range and long emission wavelengths with fluorescence maxima in the range 530nm < λ < 560nm. Notable important attributes of these materials are the increasingly greater light yield and faster fluorescence decay with increasing emission wavelength. The materials are being developed for applications in fast, radiation hard electromagnetic calorimetry, but would also find application in fiberoptic-based scintillators and wave shifters for tracking, hadronic calorimetry and timing detectors. Fluorescence spectral properties, efficiencies and decay times , and characteristics of samples before and after irradiation will be presented.


Work has been supported in part by:
The US Department of Energy under grant DE-SC0017810.003
The US National Science Foundation under grant NSF-PHY-1914059
The University of Notre Dame – Resilience and Recovery Grant Program

Keywords: scintilllators, waveshifters, calorimetry, particle detectors

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