No Health without Mental Health: European Clinical Psychology Takes Responsibility
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Prevention

   
Shortcut: PS-04
Date: Friday, 1 November, 2019, 1:00 p.m.
Room: Foyer
Session type: Poster

Contents

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PS-04-01

Volunteer and staff support in security incidents – exploring support mechanisms and characteristics of stress grounded in terror-, amok- and hostage-taking incidents in the EU. (#71)

A. Kreh1, B. Juen1

1 Universität Innsbruck, Institut für Psychologie, Innsbruck, Tirol, Austria

Structured Poster Abstract

Introduction

International security incidents such as terror attacks, amok and hostage taking incidents, are a special challenge for emergency services, police, firefighters and other stakeholders involved into emergency response efforts. The main challenge is to react adequately with regard to the main goals of (1) saving as many people as possible and (2) ensure safety of all staff and volunteers (Landesrettungskommanden, Bundesrettungskommando, ÖRK, 2018). Additionally, the nature of man-made emergencies and disasters makes it difficult to process and cope with traumatic events which leads to higher post-incident psychopathology (Alexander & Klein, 2005). With a higher prevalence of security related threats in European countries in recent years (EU Agency of Law Enforcement Cooperation, 2018), special focus should be put on new concepts in emergency management and support of staff and volunteers.

Methods

Desk research on relevant scientific literature and guidelines has been conducted. Qualitative Expert Interviews are conducted with emergency personnel that have been involved in security incidents in European countries during the last decade (e.g. Munich, 2016; Paris, 2016; Nice, 2015).

Results

Experiences made during the response are examined. Stressors specifically relevant in security incidents are presented. Staff support mechanisms and stretegies that have been proven useful as well as challenges for responders on different levels in recent incidents are discussed.

Conclusions

First results allow the conclusion that recent security incidents in fact have been experienced as highly stressful by staff and volunteers and might lead to higher risks in developing mental health problems. Staff support and management procedures should be reviewed considering psychological, social and ethical aspects. Further research, including quantitative measures, will be conducted regarding mental health of staff and volunteers following the events.

Keywords: psychosocial, prevention, emergencies, terror
PS-04-02

Investigating the Relationship between Effortful Control and Social Anxiety in Adolescents and The Role of Shyness as a Mediator (#154)

A. Moghadam1, F. Michaelimanee1

1 Urmia University, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty Of Literature and Humanities, Urmia, Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Structured Poster Abstract

Introduction: Social anxiety disorder is an impairment in which a person is afraid of any social situation that he or she thinks may be negatively evaluated by others, and is trying to get away from them. In about 80% of cases, the disorder is formed from the beginning of adolescence to the second decade of life (youth). Research suggests the importance of this disorder in adolescence and its etiology.
Method: The design of the research is the correlation of structural equation modeling. The community includes all students (adolescents) in the provinces of Tehran in the academic year of 2017-2018. In the first step, a multi-stage cluster sampling method was used for selecting schools and classes. Then, 407 students were selected based on Curry and Morgan's tables (197 girls and 210 boys). The average age of adolescents was 15 to 17 years old. After collecting the questionnaires, the data were analyzed using Spss and Amos software version 21 (p<0.01).
Findings: Bootstrapping output results indicate that the shyness variable cannot act as a mediator, and it can only explain an indirect relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables.
Conclusion: In explaining the shyness's inability to establish a mediating role between effortful control and social anxiety, we can point to the protective role of effortful control. In other words, protective factors determine the role of a variable such as shyness in relation to these factors. The results of this finding indicate the importance of effortful control as a variable that enables adolescents to increasingly regulate their emotions and control their behavior, and thus experience less anxiety.

Keywords: Adolescents, Effortful Control, Social Anxiety, Shyness
PS-04-03

A Descriptive Study of Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Children Staying in Institutional Homes (#160)

D. Çelo1

1 Tirana University, Social Science Faculty , Tirana, Albania

Structured Poster Abstract

Living in institutions may be a stressful experience and could affect the mental health of children living there. Orphans and the other vulnerable children and adolescents living in institutional homes are more prone to behavioral and emotional problems than others as they are deprived of a family's love and care.There is a dearth of empirical studies focusing on the psychological health of these children. The aim of the study wasto describe emotional and behavioral problems and coping strategies of children living in institutions. A case study approach was employed focusing on residential social care institution in the city of Saranda. “The Children House” is a residential social care institution for children of biological orphans, social orphans and other vulnerable children. Participants of the study were 15 children from 10 years old to 16 years. A qualitative approach was employed to capture the personal experience of children’s emotional and behavioral problems. The data were triangulated by using different methods such semi-structured interviews of children, behavioral observation in institution and focus group with institutionalstaff. Qualitative data were analyzed using the phenomenological interpretative analysis (IPA) based on to research questions. The present study shows that the orphans at institutional homes are vulnerable to behavioral and emotional problems. The reasons of emotional problems that they were experienced include discrimination, rejection, physical and psychological violence, feelings of inferiority, love deprivation, fear of abandonment, insecurity for the future. Children manifest non-adaptive and protective behaviors against others. They used as coping skills dreaming for the future and even more, for the maladapted internalizing and extroverting behaviors.

Keywords: Children, Residential Institution, Emotional Problems, Behavioral Problem
PS-04-04

Keep calm and increase your heart rate variability – a pilot study on the feasibility of heart rate variability biofeedback in individuals with psychotic disorders (#187)

A. Clamor1, T. Lincoln1

1 Universität Hamburg, Psychology, Hamburg, Germany

Structured Poster Abstract

Introduction. According to vulnerability-stress-models, psychotic symptoms develop as a consequence of a diminished adaptation to stress that is accompanied by increased autonomic arousal. One parameter that reflects autonomic adaptability and is reduced in patients with psychotic disorders is the heart rate variability (HRV). It is unknown whether an increase in HRV will be complemented by a better adaptation to stress and thus lead to diminished psychotic symptoms. First investigations in at-risk groups and uncontrolled designs allude to the potential benefit of HRV trainings, however, well-controlled and clinical studies are lacking. In the present pilot study we investigated the feasibility of an intervention to increase HRV in a sample of individuals with psychotic disorders. Methods. In a randomised-controlled repeated-measures design, we tested the potential of HRV biofeedback to enhance physiological and subjective adaptation to a stressor compared to an active relaxation (i.e., progressive muscle relaxation) group. The n = 9 participants trained in five weekly 20-minute sessions. An experimental stressor was conducted before and after the intervention. The individual profiles of the participants were analysed. Results. Some participants increased their baseline HRV (40% in biofeedback vs. 25% in PMR group). For the recovery phase after the stressor, we found a trend for group differences in HRV (i.e., increased HRV in the biofeedback group). Conclusions. HRV biofeedback bears the potential to increase the adaptability to stress in psychotic disorders. Because some participants reported discomfort due to the setting of the slow breathing, we are currently conducting a second pilot study with an adapted design. The results of both pilot trials will be presented at the conference. Difficulties and future prospects for intervention and research will be discussed.

Keywords: schizophrenia, relaxation, intervention
PS-04-05

Exploring the role of Maternal Parenting, Maternal Substance Misuse on Children Aggressive Behavior (#229)

A. B. Emagnaw1

1 Central China Normal University , School of Psychology , Wuhan, China

Structured Poster Abstract

Exploring the role of Maternal Parenting, Maternal Substance Misuse on Children Aggressive Behavior

Alemayehu Belay Emagnaw

1. School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, China, PhD Candidate in Developmental and Educational Psychology

2. Department of School and Counseling Psychology, Woldia University, Ethiopia Academic Staff

Email id: abelay35@yahoo.com

Abstract

Introduction: Aggressive behavior is a trouble in every society. Aggression is defined as destructive, harmful, hostile and often caused by frustration. Knowing the factors that influence aggressive behavior of children as well as how aggression is expressed are essential to developing an understanding of it. The primary purpose of this research was to explore the effect of maternal parenting, socio economic status, maternal substance misuse on children’s aggression. In addition, the study examined how the dimensions of maternal parenting were associated with aggressive behavior of children.

Methods: The participants were 200 parents of boys and girls between the ages of six to seven from primary schools. The data collected were analyzed employing different statistical techniques like descriptive, correlation and multiple regression analysis.

Results: Analysis of the data revealed that mothers substance misuse was positively associated with an aggression of children. Maternal neglecting and indulgent were associated with children's aggression behavior. Multiple regression analysis of the data showed that socio economic status and maternal education considered in the study were found to have a statistically significant contribution to the children aggression.

Conclusions: The current study has significant implications for parents, schools, counselors, government and non government sectors and practitioners who are concerned about managing and reducing children aggression behaviors.

 

Keywords: children aggressive behavior, maternal parenting, socioeconomic status, substance misuse
PS-04-06

An Investigation of Anxiety Sensitivity, Meta-Worry and Components of Emotion Regulation in adolescents with and without Social Anxiety (#279)

N. Mortazavi1, S. Ebrahimi1

1 Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Department of Psychology, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Structured Poster Abstract

Introduction: Anxiety sensitivity, meta-worry and emotion regulation are critical psychological components involved in social anxiety disorder. The present paper seeks to study anxiety sensitivity, meta-worry and components of emotion regulation in adolescents with and without social anxiety disorder.

Method: This paper presents the ex post facto research design (causal-comparative method). The sample included 104 patients (52 patients with social anxiety disorder and 52 normal people) which were selected by simple random sampling. The community includes all students (adolescents) in the Tabriz in the academic year of 2017-2018. Data was collected using Wells anxiety thoughts, Gross and John emotion regulation, and Reiss and Peterson anxiety sensitivity index. They were also analyzed through MANOVA.

Findings: The results showed that there were significant differences between groups of adolescents with and without social anxiety disorder in anxiety sensitivity, meta-worry and reappraisal. In other words, adolescents with social anxiety disorder experience more anxiety sensitivity and meta-worry and less reappraisal than the control group. Also, there was no significant difference between groups in terms of suppression.

Conclusion: The anxiety sensitivity, meta-worry and reappraisal are psychological structures which play a significant role in the development of social anxiety disorder and can lead to persistence of its symptoms.

Keywords: Social anxiety, Emotion regulation, Anxiety sensitivity, Meta-worry
PS-04-07

Factors associated with mental health of Japanese motor vehicle accident victims in the prediction of chronic and delayed distress. (#299)

G. Fujita1

1 National Research Institute of Police Science, Kashiwa-shi, Japan

Structured Poster Abstract

  • Introduction

In every year, more than 34 thousands of people were severely injured in motor vehicle accidents (MVA) in Japan. They are hurt not only physically but also mentally. In particular, it is important to predict chronic and delayed psychological distress of MVA victims.

  • Methods

In this study, we analyzed two different datasets, one was longitudinal (n = 92) and the other was cross-sectional (n = 347), and examined factors of psychological distress among Japanese MVA victims at different time stages (40 days and one year after in the longitudinal dataset, 18 months after in the cross-sectional dataset).

  • Results

Longitudinal data indicated that resilient coping was a definite factor at earlier stage of recovery but its effect receded in the follow-up assessment. At every time stages, distress in peritraumatic phase was the strongest factors.

  • Conclusions

Our study suggests that mental health professionals should change their focus flexibly when they try to predict chronic and delayed psychological distress of MVA victims.

Keywords: Motor vehicle accident, resilience, chronic distress, delayed distress
PS-04-08

The impact of tapering antidepressants while receiving Preventive Cognitive Therapy during pregnancy on affect fluctuations, depressive relapse, and the offspring (#127)

M. Brouwer1

1 Amsterdam UMC, location AMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Structured Poster Abstract

Introduction: Approximately 5% of women in Europe use antidepressants medication (ADM) during pregnancy for current or past depression. ADM use during pregnancy may be toxic to the developing child, while on the other hand relapse of depression holds risks for both mother and child. Yet both ADM and preventive cognitive therapy [PCT]) may be as effective in reducing the risk of relapse. Fluctuations of affect have moreover been linked to an increased risk of recurrence of depression, and to adverse effects in the offspring including low birth weight. We sought to compare positive and negative affect fluctuations in pregnant women receiving PCT while tapering antidepressant medication to pregnant women continuing ADM, and to investigate if affect fluctuations in early pregnancy were related to birth weight.


Methods: An experience sampling methodology (ESM)-trial run alongside a Dutch randomized controlled trial of women tapering versus continuing ADM in early pregnancy. In the ESM-trial, fluctuations of positive and negative affect, recurrence of depression, and birth outcomes were assessed. 


Results: In total, 24 pregnant women using ADM at start of their pregnancy participated in the ESM-trial. There were no significant differences in positive and negative affect fluctuations or recurrence rates between women receiving PCT while tapering ADM versus women continuing ADM. We found no association between affect fluctuations and prenatal depressive symptoms and birth weight (all p>0.05).


Conclusions: This worldwide first explorative study showed that tapering antidepressants with the guidance of preventive cognitive therapy may protect a pregnant woman against depression recurrences and affect fluctuations, without negative effects on birth weight. There is a high need for controlled studies focusing on tapering ADM with psychological interventions during pregnancy.

Keywords: Pregnancy, affect fluctuations, depressive relapse, preventive cognitive therapy
PS-04-09

School location, Gender and Age differences in Mental Health and Risky Behaviour of Adolescents: An exploratory study with Nigerian Secondary School Learners  (#176)

A. M. Lawal1

1 Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Department of Psychology, Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria

Structured Poster Abstract

Introduction: The effects of school location, gender and age on adolescents’ mental health and risky behaviour have received little attention in Nigeria. It is imperative to know how location of schools, gender and age differences may worsen or improve mental health and risky behaviour among secondary school learners. Undoubtedly, this type of information could provide insights into the recent decline in mental health and high engagement in risky behaviour among adolescents in Nigeria.

Methods: In a cross sectional survey, data were collected from 307 (46% males & 54% female) secondary school learners to separately examine the influence of school location, gender and age on their mental health indicators (somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction & depression) and risky behaviour (risk-taking and self-harm behaviour) through questionnaire. The participants ages are between 13 to 22 years (M = 15.79, SD =2.05). Factorial Multivariate analysis of variance was separately used to determine the direct and combined effects of independent variables on mental health indicators and risky behaviours.

Results: School location, gender and age directly influence the combined mental health indicators and risky behaviours. In addition, school location influences leaners’ somatic symptoms, social dysfunction and depression; gender influences somatic symptoms, anxiety and depression and age influences social dysfunction. Interactively, school location and age influence somatic symptoms among learners. Directly, school location and gender influence leaners’ risk-taking and self-harm behaviour, while age influences self-harm behaviour. Interactively, school location and gender influence self-harm behaviour among learners.

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that in order to promote good mental health and reduce risky behaviour among secondary school learners in Nigeria, location of schools, gender and age-specific strategies should be put in place as interventions.

Keywords: Mental health, risky behaviour, gender, age
PS-04-10

Depression, childhood trauma experience and dissociative symptoms in relation to suicide attempts (#178)

M. Bertule1, S. Sebre1

1 University of Latvia, Psychology department, Faculty of Psychology and Art, Riga, Latvia

Structured Poster Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the associations between suicide attempts, depression, childhood trauma experience and dissociation. Previous research has indicated subgroups of depression in relation to suicide, and some have postulated depression and dissociation comorbidity as a subtype with greater risk of suicide. This study included three independent samples: a community sample of 193 adults (mean age = 36 years); a sample of 47 outpatients with diagnosis of depression (mean age 35 years); and a sample of 68 inpatients with diagnosis of depression (mean age 43 years).  Research participants completed the Dissociation Experience Scale (DES), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Revised (CESD-R), demographic data, and reported on the number of their suicide attempts. Analysis of the community sample data showed the expected associations between suicide attempts and depression, childhood abuse and dissociation ratings, as well as associations between depression and dissociation ratings. Regression analysis indicated ratings of depression and childhood trauma as the strongest predictors of suicide attempts within the community sample. In the depression outpatient group associations were found between suicide attempts, amnesia and total dissociation ratings, as well as between depression and dissociation ratings. Cluster analysis of the data indicated various subgroups of depression, dissociation and childhood trauma ratings in relation to suicide attempts. Study results imply that clinicians should consider specifically assessing dissociation as well as depression and childhood trauma when determining risk for later suicidality.

Keywords: suicide attempts, depression, childhood trauma, dissociation
PS-04-11

SOLAR - Promoting recovery from trauma with a low-intensity brief intervention: A feasibility study in Germany. (#284)

A. Lotzin1, R. - C. Freyberg1, W. Lau2, M. O'Donnell2

1 University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
2 Phoenix Australia Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Department of Psychiatry , Melbourne, Australia

Structured Poster Abstract

Introduction: SOLAR (International program for Promoting Adjustment and Resilience), is an evidence-informed low-intensity 5-session program to address persistent subclinical distress. SOLAR has been piloted in Australia, but further studies are needed to examine its feasibility and efficacy in Europe.

This study examines the feasibility of conducting a larger randomized controlled trial on the SOLAR program. It has five objectives: To examine (1) recruitment speed, (2) eligibility rate, (3) treatment adherence, (4) study retention and (5) participant experience. As a secondary objective, it aims at estimating the effect size of SOLAR in reducing clinical symptoms.

Methods: A randomized controlled design is used. 30 adult participants are included if they (1) were exposed to a potentially traumatic event according to DSM-5, (2) are experiencing mild to moderate levels of distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale 10 <30) or functional impairment (“yes” vs. “no” item). Participants are excluded if they have (1) a current mental disorder (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus 7) except adjustment disorder. Trained coaches deliver SOLAR in groups of 4-6 participants.

Trial process characteristics (e.g., number and time of screened and included individuals, number of dropouts and attended sessions) are documented by researchers. Participants’ experience of SOLAR is assessed post intervention with a self-constructed survey. Diagnoses of mental disorders, psychological distress and PTSD symptoms are assessed pre and post intervention. The proportions or means and standard deviations, as well as confidence intervals, will be estimated for the defined feasibility outcomes. The effect sizes of SOLAR to reduce clinical symptoms will be also calculated.

Results and conclusions: Should the SOLAR program prove to be feasible, a randomized controlled trial should examine its efficacy in European countries.

Keywords: Psycholocial intervention, Trauma exposure, Selective prevention program, Low-intensity intervention