# Online Program Overview Session: N-34

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## Semiconductor Detectors (Tracking and Spectroscopy) II

Session chair: Susanne Kuehn CERN; Bart Hommels University of Cambridge

Shortcut: N-34
Date: Thursday, October 26, 2017, 10:20
Room: Centennial II
Session type: NSS Session

Future semiconductor detectors for High Energy Physics experiments

### Contents

10:20 am N-34-1

#### Characterization of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for the ALICE Inner Tracking System Upgrade using the PS facility at CERN.(#2076)

S. Kushpil1

1 Czech Academy of Sciences, Nuclear Physics Institute, Řež, Czech Republic

Content

Svetlana Kushpil for the ALICE Collaboration

The upgrade of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), which is currently being developed by the ALICE  collaboration aims at significantly improving the vertex and tracking resolution as well as the readout rate capabilities of the ALICE experiment at CERN. The new ITS detector will be installed during the second long LHC shutdown in 2019--2020. It will comprise seven concentric layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS)  with a total active surface of about 10 $m^2$.

The developed MAPS are based on the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS technology. The sensor design takes full advantage of a particular process feature, the deep p-well, which allows for full CMOS circuitry within the pixel  matrix, while at the same time retaining the full charge collection efficiency. A  single sensor measures 15 mm $\times$ 30 mm and contains half a million pixels distributed in 512 rows and 1024 columns.

The detection efficiency of the sensors is higher than 99$\%$, fake-hit rate is orders of magnitude lower  than the required $10^{-6}$  $pixel^{-1}$ $event^{-1}$, and spatial resolution is within the required $5~\mu$m. Sensors maintain this performance while being radiation hard to some \\ $10^{13}$ (1 MeV $n_{eq}/cm^2$), which exceeds the expected radiation load during the detector lifetime. The behavior of the final sensor is under investigations in a series of test beam measurements using pion and proton beams with 6 GeV/c at the Proton Synchrotron (PS)  at CERN.

In this contribution, we will present the setup for measurement with inclined tracks. This study focuses on the detector efficiency, spatial resolution, radiation effects and the effect of applying reverse substrate bias voltage  to the sensor.

Keywords: pixel detectors, ALICE, ITS, MAPs
10:38 am N-34-2

#### A High-Granularity Timing Detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeter system(#2164)

Y. Enari1, C. Agapopoulou2

1 University of Tokyo, ICEPP, Tokyo, Japan
2 Universite de Paris-Sud, Paris, France

Content

The expected increase of the particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the LHC with instantaneous luminosities up to L ≃ 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1} will have a severe impact on pile-up. The pile-up is expected to increase on average to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The reconstruction and trigger performance for especially jets and transverse missing energy will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region. A High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the liquid Argon end-cap calorimeters for pile-up mitigation at Level-0 (L0) trigger level and in the offline reconstruction. This device cover the pseudo-rapidity range of 2.4 to about 4.2. Four layers of Silicon sensors, possibly interleaved with Tungsten, are foreseen to provide precision timing information for charged and neutral particles with a time resolution of the order of 30 pico-seconds per readout cell in order to assign the energy deposits in the calorimeter to different proton-proton collision vertices. Each readout cell has a transverse size of only a few mm, leading to a highly granular detector with several hundred thousand readout cells. The expected improvements in performance are relevant for physics processes, i.e, vector-boson fusion and vector-boson scattering processes, and for physics signatures with large missing transverse energy.  Silicon sensor technologies under investigation are Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD), pin diodes, and HV-CMOS sensors. In this presentation, starting from the physics motivations and expected performance of the High Granular Timing Detector, the proposed detector layout and Front End readout, laboratory and beam test characterization of sensors and the results of radiation tests will be discussed.

Abstract submitted on behalf of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Speaker's Committee Speaker to be nominated later

Keywords: LHC, Calorimeter, Silicon sensor, Low Gain Avalanche Detector, High timing resolution, TOF
10:56 am N-34-3

#### Progress in Small-Pitch, Thin 3D Pixel Sensors for HL-LHC(#2219)

G. - F. Dalla Betta1, 2, G. Alimonti3, M. Boscardin4, 2, G. Darbo5, E. Fumagalli5, 6, A. Gaudiello5, C. Gemme5, R. Mendicino1, 2, M. Meschini7, A. Messineo8, 9, H. Oide5, S. Ronchin4, 2, D. Sultan1, 2, D. Vazquez Furelos10, N. Zorzi4, 2

1 University of Trento, Department of Industrial Engineering, Trento, Italy
2 TIFPA INFN, Trento, Italy
3 INFN Milano, Milano, Italy
4 Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Center for Materials and Microsystems, Trento, Italy
5 INFN Genova, Genova, Italy
6 University of Genova, Department of Physics, Genova, Italy
7 INFN Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
8 University of Pisa, Department of Physics, Pisa, Italy
9 INFN Pisa, Pisa, Italy
10 IFAE, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain

Content

We report on the latest developments in 3D pixel sensors oriented to the Phase 2 Upgrades at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). Small-pitch (e.g., 50×50 or 25×100 µm2 pixel size) pixel sensors of 130 µm active thickness from the first batch fabricated at FBK were bump-bonded to FEI4 and PSI46dig read-out chips. Several pixel modules were assembled and tested in laboratory and in beam tests at CERN and Fermilab during the last year, showing high hit reconstruction efficiency already at low voltage. An irradiation campaign is under way, with irradiations at CERN (24 GeV/c protons), KIT (25 MeV protons), and JSI (reactor neutrons). A new batch of 3D sensors, mainly oriented to the new RD53A read-out chip, has been designed and is currently being fabricated at FBK. At the conference, we will report on selected results from the characterization of pixel modules and test structures from the first batch, before and after irradiation. Initial results from the electrical characterization of the second batch will also be presented.

11:14 am N-34-4

#### Characterization of a Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor prototype in a 150 nm CMOS process for operation in harsh radiation environments.(#2547)

I. Caicedo1, S. Bhat2, Z. Chen2, M. Barbero2, P. Breugnon2, Y. Degerli3, S. Godiot2, F. Guilloux3, C. Guyot3, T. Hemperek1, T. Hirono1, F. Hügging1, H. Krüger1, M. Lachkar3, P. Pangaud2, A. Rozanov2, P. Rymaszewski1, P. Schwemling3, M. Vandenbroucke3, T. Wang1, N. Wermes1

1 University of Bonn, Physics Institute, Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
2 CPPM, Centre de physique des particules de Marseille, Marseille, France
3 CEA, IRFU: Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l'Univers., Gif-sur-Yvette, France

Content

Monolithic active pixel sensors in high-resistive substrates are part of the R&D program of the ATLAS experiment for its inner tracker upgrade towards the high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider. Manufacturing these sensors in a well-known CMOS commercial process permits a high yield and volume production at an affordable cost. Moreover, the development of such device in a high resistive silicon bulk material enables a fast charge collection by drift, which in turn extends the detector life-span and charge collection efficiency after irradiation.

In this contribution, we present the results from initial characterization studies on the LF-MONOPIX01: a Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (DMAPS) prototype developed in a 150 nm CMOS process from LFoundry. DAC scans and variations in operational values allowed us to determine optimal settings, noise levels and gain for a set of different implemented pixel architectures. In addition, we used external injection and exposed the sensor to minimum ionizing particles and radioactive sources in order to assess its charge collection capabilities.

Keywords: Monolithic active pixel sensors, DMAPS, CMOS sensors, Pixel detectors
11:32 am N-34-5

#### Characterization of a new HV/HR CMOS sensor in LF150nm technology for the ATLAS Inner Tracker Upgrade(#3559)

M. Lachkar1, P. Schwemling1, Y. Degerli1, M. Elhosni1, F. Balli1, F. Guilloux1, A. Ouraou1, C. Guyot1, T. Hemperek3, T. Hirono3, P. Rymaszewski3, N. Werme3, P. Pangaud2, S. Godiot2, H. Krüger3, M. Vandenbroucke1

1 CEA Saclay, IRFU, Gif sur Yvette, France
2 CPPM, Marseille, France
3 Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany

HV-CMOS collaboration

Content

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade planned for 2026, will allow to develop new type of sensor to replace the ATLAS Inner Tracker. For this upgrade, the HV/HR CMOS technology has been studied because of his low price, the limitation of the scattering (reduction of the material budget), the good tracking precision (pixels sizes) and the charge collection by drift allow a high radiation tolerance and a high time resolution. A HV/HR CMOS detector prototype called LFCPIX, has been developed with LFoundry 150nm technology and has been tested. In this sensor we have implemented, in the diode, with a pitch of 250µm x 50µm, the front-end (using NMOS and PMOS transistors. This demonstrator is an implementation of a matrix of smart pixels which the diode composed by a DNWell and Psubstrate is used as a depleted sensor. Three types of pixels has been developed: passive pixels, analog-digital pixels, analog pixels (connected to the FE-I4). The FE-I4 is the present readout IC of the innermost ATLAS pixel layer and the demonstrator is able to be connected to the demonstrator. In addition to present the different versions of the LFCPIX demonstrators, laboratory tests results like the characterization of the different pre-amplifiers with external injection signal first and source 55Fe calibration then of the analog-digital pixels, results of the pixels connected to the FE-I4 and radiation hardness results will be presented.

Keywords: Particle tracking detectors, HV/HR CMOS, Radiation-hard detectors
11:50 am N-34-6

#### Final system tests of the DEPFET based Belle II pixel detector PXD(#3415)

L. Andricek1, R. H. Richter1

1 MPG Semiconductor Lab, Muenchen, Bavaria, Germany

DEPFET Collaboration

Content

The DEPFET collaboration is building a highly granular, ultra-transparent active pixel detector for high-performance vertex reconstruction at the Belle II experiment, KEK, Japan. A complete detector system is being developed, including solutions for ultra-thin sensors and their mechanical support, r/o ASICs, cooling, services, and a DAQ system capable of handling the huge amount of data coming from the pixel detector.

The sensor production as well as the final ASIC production is finished and the module series production is in full swing. Final system tests as well as detailed characterization of the modules have been done. Recent milestone achievements are a full system test of PXD and SVD in the test beam and the commissioning of the pre-experiment “BEAST 2” which is about to start early 2018.

This paper will focus on the achievements during the full system test at DESY early 2017 and present a detailed discussion of one of the last open questions for the operation of the DEPFET PXD system at the SuperKEKB collider – the so-called gated mode of the DEPFET system.

Keywords: DEPFET, Vertex Detector, Belle 2, Active Pixel Sensor