The successful development of new detectors and detector concepts has played a pivotal role in the scientific success of synchrotron storage ring and Free-Electron Laser (FEL) sources. Further increases of photon beam luminosity, with high degree of coherence, promised by Diffraction Limited Storage Rings and very high repetition rate FELs will enable once again new exciting studies of complex systems and ultrafast processes, in a wide variety of scientific fields, from condensed matter to materials science, chemistry and biology. It is beyond doubt that in order to fully exploit the scientific opportunities offered by these upcoming photon sources, we have to continue to develop new detectors and detection concepts. Recent technological developments in various fields like: micro-electronics, CMOS imagers, high-z semiconductors, data transmission, etc. offer great opportunities to meet this challenge. At the same time system integration, detector calibration, data acquisition, data handling and processing remain non-negligible challenges, even for today’s systems. This session offers a platform for scientific exchange on photon science detector system development, addressing specific challenges of the field such as: Systems with very high dynamic range Fast readout imaging detectors Energy resolving detectors Large imaging area detectors Beam diagnostics and monitoring Soft x-ray detectors Hard x-ray detectors (both direct and indirect detection) Detector electronics Data acquisition and processing systems System integration Calibration techniques, analysis and visualization tools
Six-Year Operation of Multi-port CCD detector familiy at SACLA: current status and future outlook (#1276)
T. Hatsui1, .. on behalf of MPCCD collaboration1
1 RIKEN, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo-gun, Hyogo, Japan
We review our six-year operation from 2011 to 2017 of the multi-port charge-coupled device (MPCCD) detector family at the X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) facility SACLA. We first summarize the current performance with three types of sensors with 50  and 300 micrometer thick MPCCDs, in combination with the first generation camera system  and upgraded compact camera system. The major performance figures are at the modest level compared with the recent detector developments , but yielded a variety of scientific results  with minimum operation costs. Through the experiences of the MPCCD detector deployment, we determine that the robust operation with low calibration cost have been one of the critical feature for the rapid science development. In this paper, we discuss with particular emphasis on the sensor behavior upon X-ray radiation degradation and its link to the calibration cost. Our quality determination criteria for the MPCCD detectors are also reported. Calibration cost is more tangible for high-speed imaging detectors for XFELs and diffraction limited storage ring (DLSR) sources because high-speed framing demands large number of amplifiers in the X-ray illumination area. We present our target performance figures of our detector development plan for DLSR (SPring-8-II) with a route to mitigate the calibration cost.
 T. Kameshima et.al., Review of Scientific Instruments 85, 033110 (2014).
Keywords: X-ray Free-Electron Laser, detector, radiation hardness, single-photon detection
Status of the AGIPD Detector (#1205)
D. Mezza1, A. Allahgholi2, A. Delfs2, R. Dinapoli1, P. Goettlicher2, H. Graafsma2, 3, D. Greiffenberg1, H. Hirsemann2, A. Klyuev2, T. Laurus2, A. Marras2, A. Mozzanica1, I. Perova2, J. Poehlsen2, B. Schmitt1, I. Sheviakov2, X. Shi1, U. Trunk2, J. Zhang1, M. Zimmer2
1 Paul Scherrer Institut, SYN, Villigen, Aargau, Switzerland
AGIPD (Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector) is a 2D hybrid pixel detector system designed and developed for the European XFEL (XFEL.EU). At XFEL.EU photons will arrive in bunch trains every 100 ms (or at a rate of 10 Hz). Each train consists of 2700 bunches that arrive within 600 µs (i.e. a bunch spacing of 220 ns, meaning 4.5 MHz frame rate) followed by 99.4 ms without pulses. Each single pulse consists of 1012 X-ray photons squeezed in less than 100 fs and in an energy range between 250 eV up to 25 keV. In order to cope with the large dynamic range, the first stage of each pixel of the AGIPD ASIC is a charge sensitive preamplifier with three different gain settings that are dynamically switched during the charge integration. Dynamic gain switching allows to have single photon resolution (with a measured S/N ratio of 11 at 12.4 keV) in the high gain setting and at the same time to cover a dynamic range of 104 x 12.4 keV photons in the low gain setting with a linearity better than 1%. The time structure of the beam of the XFEL.EU (frame rate 4.5 MHz) does not allow a continuous readout of the single frames during the bunch train, thus each pixel of the AGIPD ASIC (Area 200 x 200 µm2) is equipped with an on-pixel memory that consists of 2 storage cells matrices of 352 storage cells each which allows to store up to 352 images. This contribution will be focused on the status of the AGIPD detector and on the characterization activity of AGIPD1.1, the last version of the full scale chip. The results of this careful characterization activity will also be compared with the ones obtained with AGIPD1.0, the first version of the full scale chip, showing the significant improvements of the new version. Moreover, since one of the most critical aspects of this detector concern its calibration, a discussion about the methodologies and preliminary results of the calibration of the detector will also follow.
Keywords: Detectors, XFEL, X-Ray
DSSC prototype ladder operation and performance study at PETRA III / P04 (#3180)
G. Weidenspointner1, M. Donato1, M. Turcato1, M. Kirchgessner2, J. Buck3, A. Castoldi4, 5, F. Erdinger2, C. Fiorini4, 5, P. Fischer2, C. Guazzoni4, 5, A. Grande4, 5, K. Hansen3, P. Kalavakuru3, S. Maffessanti4, 5, M. Manghisoni6, M. Porro1, C. Reckleben3, S. Schlee1, J. Soldat2, J. Viefhaus3, C. Wunderer3, T. Dietze1, M. Ekmedzic1
1 European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility GmbH, Schenefeld, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
The DSSC (DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression) is a new instrument with non-linear compression of the input signal and with parallel signal processing (filtering, linear amplification, and 8-bit digitization) for all pixels. The DSSC will serve as ultra fast, megapixel sized imaging detector at the European XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser) in Hamburg, Germany, which will begin science operation in September this year.
In December 2016, a prototype ladder system with 128x512 pixels was operated and studied for the first time at the Variable Polarization XUV Beamline (P04) of PETRA~III, the Synchrotron Radiation Source at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. A ladder consists of two focal-plane modules, which are both mounted on a small main board PCB. The focal-plane module is composed of a 256x128 pixel miniSDD sensor read out by 8 F1 prototype ASICs, each providing 64x64 channels. The ladder system is completed by 4 power regulator boards, an I/O board and a module interconnection board as in the final mega-pixel camera. This allows the operation in pulsed mode fulfilling the requirements of XFEL. Every 100 ms, 800 images per pixel are read out by the data acquisition electronics.
The system could be operated and read-out continuously during the beamtime. We had access to the photon beam during two nights. First studies of the performance of the ladder system were performed using the collected data. For example, we assessed the system stability, measured for the first time the system gain in physical units for different ASIC gain settings, and studied the dispersion of the gain.
Keywords: European XFEL, DSSC detector, calibration, PETRA~III / P04
Spectroscopic, high resolution and soft X-ray imaging using the MÖNCH hybrid detector (#1994)
M. Andrä1, A. Bergamaschi1, M. Brueckner1, R. Dinapoli1, D. Ferreira-Sanchez1, E. Froejdh1, D. Greiffenberg1, D. Grolimund1, M. Kagias1, C. Lopez-Cuenca1, D. Mezza1, A. Mozzanica1, M. Ramilli1, S. Redford1, J. Raabe1, M. Ruat1, C. Ruder1, B. Schmitt1, V. Scagnoli1, X. Shi1, M. Stampanoni1, U. Staub1, D. Thattil1, G. Tinti1, S. Van Petegem1, S. Vetter1, Z. Wang1, J. Zhang1
1 Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland
The MÖNCH hybrid pixel detector opens new possibilities for position sensitive and energy resolved X-ray experiments thanks to its 25 µm pixel pitch and 35 electrons noise.
Several applications have been explored at the Swiss Light Source in order to evaluate the performance of the MÖNCH0.3 prototype which already consists of 160 kPixels and can be used for pilot experiments.
In particular, we have tested the performance of the detector in the soft X-ray energy range for ptychographic and diffraction imaging down to 700 eV, where detectors are often one of the main limiting factors in the experiments.
In addition, we have exploited the energy resolving power of MÖNCH in Laue diffraction experiments, simultaneously detecting the intensity and energy and position of the Bragg peaks.
The possibility of improving the position resolution beyond the pixel pitch by interpolation, which can be achieved thanks to the small pixels and low noise, allowed us to use MÖNCH in grating interferometry experiments separating the absorption, differential phase and dark field components in the images without the use of the absorption grating G2.
These tests will allow us to define the specifications for the future 2 Mpixel MÖNCH detector to be used at the soft X-ray beamline of SwissFEL, but will also satisfy the requirements of many spectroscopic, high resolution and soft X-ray imaging applications at synchrotrons, which are currently limited by the performance of the detectors.
We will present the outcome of the experiments performed using MÖNCH up to now and discuss the perspectives for the development of the large area detector.
Keywords: hybrid pixel detector, laue diffraction, soft X-rays, grating interferometry
The ExcaliburRX-3M X-Ray Photon Counting Area Detector for Coherent Diffraction Imaging at the I13 Beamline at Diamond Light Source (#1780)
S. Williams1, D. Batey1, S. Cipiccia1, C. Angelsen2, R. Crook1, E. Gimenez1, I. Horswell1, J. Marchal3, T. Nicholls2, U. Pedersen1, N. Tartoni1, J. Thompson1, C. Rau1, B. Willis1
1 Diamond Light Source Ltd., Detectors, Didcot, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
ExcaliburRX-3M is an X-ray photon counting detector based upon the latest in the Medipix family of hybrid pixel ASICs, Medipix3RX. The detector was designed specifically for the coherent diffraction imaging beamline of Diamond Light Source, I13, which provides a long translation rail allowing for around 14 m between the sample and the imaging plane for ptychography measurements and detector mount on a team of two robot arms for coherent X-ray diffraction. In order to effectively take advantage of these capabilities, a large area photon counting detector was envisaged with the requirements of small pixel size and fast data readout. ExcaliburRX-3M consists of three modules of Medipix3RX chips flip-chip bonded to 500um-thick monolithic silicon sensors, 48 chips in total providing over three million pixels at a pixel pitch of 55um. Each row of 8 chips is connected to FPGA-based Front End Module cards developed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council, and each FEM is connected to its own linux server PC for highly parallel readout of the pixel data. Frame rates of 100Hz can be achieved when writing frames directly to data storage, and at 1kHz in burst mode. Burst mode utilises internal memory on the FEM boards to store around one second of data, after which the acquisition is streamed to external data storage. A series of recent commissioning experiments has been performed on the I13 beamline in order to calibrate and determine the capability of the detector. Results from this commissioning, including direct X-ray absorption imaging of a computer mouse peripheral and Siemens star ptychography, will be presented in this paper. Excellent resolution on the length scale of ~1mm has been achieved using a microfocus X-ray beam for the direct absorption imaging. For the ptychography, when optimised for resolution, an object pixel size of around 19nm has been achieved, and an optimisation for field of view can achieve a reconstructed image on the scale of ~200um.
Keywords: X-ray photon detectors
ARDESIA: 4-Channels Fast SDD X-ray Spectrometer for Synchrotron Applications (#3203)
G. Bellotti1, 2, F. Lussignoli1, 2, A. D. Butt1, 2, M. Carminati1, 2, C. E. Fiorini1, 2, A. Balerna3, V. Tullio3, C. Piemonte4, N. Zorzi4, A. Capsoni2, S. Coelli2, L. Bombelli5
1 Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Milano, Italy
This work reports the development of the ARDESIA spectrometer. ARDESIA is a SDD-based, multichannel X-ray spectrometer, optimized for synchrotron applications that require a high-rate (Mcps), high-resolution (below 150 eV FWHM at shaping time faster than 200 ns) soft X-ray detection. The main applications for which ARDESIA is designed are X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) techniques. In this work the first prototype of ARDESIA 4-channels complete instrument is presented. After optimization and characterization of the 4-channel detection module, the mechanical cooling structure of the instrument has been realized so that it can properly fit inside a synchrotron scattering chamber with a finger-like structure. The mechanical structure grants cooling, with a double Peltier TEC strategy, vacuum, insulation from the harsh surrounding environment and potential for placing side-by-side several spectrometers. A compact, low-noise detection module has been developed for the instrument. The detector signals are amplified by a monolithic four-channel CUBE preamplifiers and processed by a digital pulse processor to achieve short pulse processing times, to show the good performances of the module at high count rates (about 1 Mcps per channel). Experimental results, taken also at the LNF DAFNE-Light DXR1 soft X-ray beamline, are here reported.
Keywords: X-ray detectors, synchrotron, high count rate, SDD, spectroscopy, low noise, spectrometer, cooling, XRF, XAFS, CUBE