IEEE 2017 NSS/MIC/RTSD ControlCenter

Online Program Overview Session: N-07

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HEP Instrumentation I

Session chair: Craig Woody; Etiennette Auffray CERN
Shortcut: N-07
Date: Monday, October 23, 2017, 16:00
Room: Regency VII
Session type: NSS Session


4:00 pm N-07-1 Download

Digital Imaging Calorimetry for Precision Electromagnetic and Hadronic Interaction Measurements (#1525)

B. Biki1, 2, B. Freund4, Y. Onel2, J. Repond3

1 Beykent University, Istanbul, Turkey
2 University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America
3 Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, United States of America
4 McGill University, Montreal, Canada


In view of the full implementation of the Particle Flow Algorithms in future linear collider experiments, the CALICE Collaboration developed the Digital Hadron Calorimeter. The Particle Flow Algorithms attempt to measure each particle in a hadronic jet individually, using the detector providing the best energy/momentum resolution. Therefore, the spatial segmentation of the calorimeter plays a crucial role. The Digital Hadron Calorimeter uses Resistive Plate Chambers as active media and has a 1-bit resolution (digital) readout of 1 x 1 cm2 pads. As part of the broad test beam program, the calorimeter was tested with steel and tungsten absorber configurations both with electrons and hadrons. Here, we demonstrate the power of imaging calorimetry with detailed measurements of electromagnetic and hadronic interactions based on the digital imaging calorimeter data with unprecedented spatial resolution.

Keywords: CALICE, calorimetry, resistive plate chambers, imaging calorimetry
4:18 pm N-07-2 Download

Experimental and simulation study of irradiated silicon pad detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (#2133)

T. H. T. Peltola1

1 Texas Tech University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lubbock, Texas, United States of America


The foreseen upgrade of the LHC to its high luminosity phase (HL-LHC), will maximize the physics potential of the facility. The upgrade is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of 5 and deliver an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 after 10 years of operation. As a result of the corresponding increase in radiation and pileup, the electromagnetic calorimetry in the CMS endcaps will sustain maximum integrated doses of 1.5 MGy and neutron fluences above 1016 neqcm-2, necessitating their replacement for HL-LHC operation.

The CMS collaboration has decided to replace the existing endcap electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters by a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) that will provide unprecedented information on electromagnetic and hadronic showers in the very high pileup of the HL-LHC. The HGCAL will be realized as a sampling calorimeter with 40 layers of active material. The electromagnetic section and the high-radiation region of the hadronic section will use hexagonal silicon sensors as active material. The low-radiation regions of the hadronic section will use plastic scintillator tiles with on-tile silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). The silicon sensors will be divided into cells of ~0.5 - 1.0 cm2 and will have active thicknesses from 100 to 300 µm depending on their pseudorapidity (thinner sensors at higher eta).

In order to employ Si detectors in HGCAL and to address the challenges brought by the intense radiation environment, an extensive R&D program has been initiated, comprising production of prototype sensors, their qualification before and after irradiation to the expected levels, and accompanying simulation studies. We present results on measured charge collection efficiences, leakage currents and capacitances, before and after irradiation. Comparisons of these measurements with numerical simulation results as well as validation of the sensors for the HGCAL at radiation levels expected for the HL-LHC will also be presented.

Keywords: Calorimetry; Silicon Radiation Detectors; Radiation Hardness; Charge Collection Efficiency; TCAD Simulations
4:36 pm N-07-3 Download

Design and Status of the Mu2e calorimeter (#2250)

S. Miscetti1, E. Diociaiuti1

1 LNF, INFN, Frascati, Italy


The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab searches for the charged-lepton flavour violating neutrino-less conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of a aluminum nucleus. The dynamics of such a  process is well modelled by a two-body decay, resulting in a mono-energetic electron  of 104.967 MeV. If no events are observed in three years of running, Mu2e will set a limit on the ratio between the conversion rate and the capture rate \convrate of $\leq 6\ \times\ 10^{-17}$ (@ 90$\%$ C.L.). This will improve the current limit by four orders of magnitude~\cite{MU2ETDR}.

The calorimeter~\cite{MU2ECALO} plays an important role in providing excellent particle identification capabilities, a fast online trigger filter while  aiding the track reconstruction capabilities. It should  be able to keep functionality  in an environment where the n, p and photon background from muon capture processes and  beam flash events deliver a dose of ~ 50 Gy/year in the hottest area. It will also need to work  in  1 T axial magnetic field and a $10^{-4}$ torr vacuum. The calorimeter requirements are to provide a large acceptance for 100 MeV electrons and reach:
(a) a time resolution better than 0.5 ns @ 100 MeV;
(b)  an energy resolution {\it O($10\%$)} @ 100 MeV and
(c)  a position resolution of 1 cm.

The calorimeter consists of two disks, each one made of 674 pure CsI crystals read out by two large area array 2$\times$3 of UV-extended SiPM 6$\times$6 mm$^2$.  We report here all progresses done for the construction and test of the Module-0 prototype that is an array of 51 pre-production crystals from St.Gobain, Siccas and Amcrys firms. Each crystal has been readout by two pre-production Mu2e SiPMs selected among the ones produced by Hamamatsu, Sensl or Advansid. The module-0 will be exposed to an electron beam in the energy range around 100 MeV at the BTF (Beam Test Facility) in Frascati. Preliminary results of timing and energy resolution at normal incidence will be shown

Keywords: scintillation, crystals, calorimetry, sipm, Mu2e
4:54 pm N-07-4

ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems (#2479)

D. Boumediene2

2 Univ. Blaise Pascal Clermont Fe, Physics, Clermont Fe, France


The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are then digitized at 40 MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain, a set of calibration systems is used.  The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitisation. Calibration runs are monitored from a data quality perspective and used as a cross-check for physics runs. Data quality in physics runs is monitored extensively and continuously. Problems are reported and immediately investigated. The data quality efficiency achieved was 99.6% in 2012, 100% in 2015 and 98.9% in 2016. Based on LHC Run 1 experience, several calibration systems were improved for Run 2. The lessons learned, the modifications, and the LHC Run 2 performance, between 2015 and 2017, are discussed, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contributions to reconstructed objects and physics results.

Keywords: Calorimeter, calibration, Monitoring
5:12 pm N-07-5 Download

Performance of a highly granular scintillator-SiPM based hadron calorimeter prototype in strong magnetic fields (#2792)

F. Simon1, C. Graf1

1 Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München, Germany

On behalf of the CALICE Collaboration


Within the CALICE collaboration, several concepts for the hadronic calorimeter of a future linear collider detector are studied. After having demonstrated the capabilities of the measurement methods in "physics prototypes", the focus now lies on improving their implementation in "engineering prototypes", that are scalable to the full linear collider detector. The Analog Hadron Calorimeter (AHCAL) concept is a sampling calorimeter of tungsten or steel absorber plates and plastic scintillator tiles read out by silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) as active material. The front-end chips are integrated into the active layers of the calorimeter and are designed for minimising power consumption by rapidly cycling the power according to the beam structure of a linear accelerator.

The versatile electronics allows the prototype to be equipped with different types of scintillator tiles and SiPMs. A prototype with ~ 2200 channels, equipped with several types of scintillator tiles and SiPMs, will be tested with muons and electrons in a 3 T magnet at the CERN SPS in May 2017 to establish the operational stability with power pulsing and  the overall detector performance in a magnetic field. At the same time, a feed-back system to compensate possible temperature-induced response variations by adapting the SiPM bias voltage was developed. The presentation will discuss the status of the CALICE AHCAL engineering prototype, presenting first results from the beam tests with power pulsing in a strong magnetic field and the prospects for an active stabilisation of the photo sensor response to compensate for changing environmental parameters.

Keywords: Highly granular calorimeters, SiPMs, HEP Detector Systems, Hadronic calorimetry
5:30 pm N-07-6 Download

High precision electromagnetic calorimetry with 40 MHz readout: the CMS crystal ECAL for the High-Luminosity LHC. (#3234)

T. Orimoto1

1 Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

On behalf of the CMS collaboration


The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) will be upgraded to meet the challenging running conditions expected after the High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC). Particular challenges at HL-LHC are the harsh radiation environment, the increasing data rates and the extreme level of pile-up events, with up to 200 simultaneous proton-proton collisions. The detector will have to sustain an instantaneous luminosity of above 5 x 1034 cm2 s-1, maintaining a performance similar to the one of LHC Run I for an integrated luminosity of 3 to 5 ab-1. This poses stringent requirements on the radiation resistance of detector components, the readout and data transfer from the front end to the back end electronics, as well as the latency of the trigger system. The barrel region of the CMS ECAL will be able to retain the current lead tungstate crystals and avalanche photodiode detectors which will meet the energy measurement performance requirements throughout the operational lifetime of the HL-LHC. To improve the physics performance of CMS under severe pile-up conditions, the timing precision of the CMS ECAL will be improved to reach around 30 ps for energies down to 10 GeV. The very front end readout will utilize trans-impedance amplifiers to optimally utilize the excellent timing performance of the ECAL crystals. The detector will be fully read out without any noise suppression at the LHC collision rate of 40 MHz. A powerful back-end electronics will reconstruct the amplitude and time of each of the 60000 channels of the ECAL barrel in real time. We will present the status of the R&D of the readout and back-end electronics, report on the latest beam tests with pre-production prototypes, and describe the expected performance of the upgraded detector.

Keywords: precision calorimetry, HL-LHC, real time readout, precision timing