FELIX: the new detector readout system for the ATLAS experiment (#2763)
1 STFC, Didcot, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
After the Phase-I upgrade and onward, the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) system will be the interface between the data handling system and the detector front-end electronics and trigger electronics at the ATLAS experiment. FELIX will function as a router between custom serial links and a commodity switch network which will use standard technologies to communicate with data collecting and processing components. The FELIX system is being developed by using commercial-off-the-shelf server PC technology in combination with a FPGA-based PCIe Gen3 I/O card interfacing to GigaBit Transceiver links and with Timing, Trigger and Control connectivity provided by an FMC-based mezzanine card. Dedicated firmware for the Xilinx FPGA (Virtex 7 and Kintex UltraScale) installed on the I/O card alongside an interrupt-driven Linux kernel driver and user-space software will provide the required functionality. On the network side, the FELIX unit connects to both Ethernet-based network and Infiniband. The system architecture of FELIX will be described and the results of the development program currently in progress will be presented.
Keywords: trigger, electronics
Belle II Pixel Detector Data Readout System (#3240)
I. Konorov1, D. Levit1, A. Rabusov1, S. Paul1, S. Huber1
1 Technical University of Munich, Department of Physics, Garching, Bavaria, Germany
In this paper we present the data read-out system of the Belle II pixel detector and detector performance obtained during the beam test at DESY. Belle II detector at the SuperKEKB e+e- collider is a new experiment at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, which will start by late 2018. The collider's instantaneous luminosity will be 40 times higher than the previous KEKB collider. The pixel detector has been developed for improved vertex resolution and detection of particles with momenta as low as 50 MeV/c. The pixel detector being the closest to the beam pipe will provide 20 GB/s of data, The pixel detector read-out chain divided into three parts: on-ladder ASICs, which digitizes and does first stage of data processing; FPGA-based read-out chain, that controls ASICs, distributes timing, trigger and reads data; and online data reduction system. It aims to reduce data stream by factor 30 using information from other detector. During DESY beam test 2017 the cooperative pixel and strip vertex detectors operation has been acheived. Two full-size pixel detector modules inside the test beam volume and two additional modules outside the volume have been run together to test simultaneous readout from 4 modules. The data reduction mechanism using ROI has been successfully tested.
Keywords: DEPFET, Belle II, DAQ, Pixel Detector
Modeling the energy and timing digital signal processing for the Gamma Ray Energy Tracking In-Beam Nuclear Array (GRETINA) (#2171)
T. Stezelberger1, M. Schütt1, 2, S. Zimmermann1, M. Bantel2, C. M. Campbell1, M. Cromaz1
1 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, United States of America
The Gamma Ray Energy Tracking In-Beam Nuclear Array (GRETINA) is a 1-π detector system capable of determining energy, timing and tracking of multiple gamma-ray interactions inside germanium crystals. Charge sensitive amplifiers instrument the crystals and their outputs are converted using analog to digital converters for real-time digital processing. In this paper, we will present the modeling in MATLAB of the digital signal processing path used to find the energy and timing of the gamma rays at low and high rates and compare them with the performance of analog readout. We intend to use the experience of these simulations to improve the processing presently executed in real time in field programmable gate arrays. We will describe the results and performance of simulated and measured signals under various conditions. In addition, we will describe enhancements to the digital signal processing and their effects on the results.
Keywords: Energy resolution, Detector, Digital signal processing, Field programmable gate arrays
The readout controller for the calibration system of Muon g-2 experiment (#2177)
S. Mastroianni1, A. Anastasi2, 14, A. Anastasio1, F. Bedeschi10, A. Boiano1, G. Cantatore3, 13, D. Cauz3, 12, S. Ceravolo2, G. Corradi2, S. Dabagov2, P. Di Meo1, A. Driutti3, 12, G. Di Sciascio4, O. Escalante1, 7, R. Di Stefano1, 11, C. Ferrari5, 2, A. Fioretti5, 2, C. Gabbanini5, 2, A. Gioiosa6, D. Hampai2, M. Iacovacci7, 1, M. Karuza8, 3, A. Lusiani9, 10, F. Marignetti11, 1, D. Moricciani4, A. Nath1, G. Pauletta3, 12, G. M. Piacentino6, N. Raha4, L. Santi3, 12, G. Venanzoni2
1 INFN, Napoli, Napoli, Italy
The Muon g-2 Experiment at Fermilab will measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment, a=(g-2)/2 to unprecedented precision: the goal is 0.14 parts per million (ppm). To this aim a calibration system, made by laser source and light distribution system, will provide short light pulses directly into each crystal of the 24 calorimeters to measure energy and arrival time of the decay positrons. Each calorimeter is constituted by a matrix of 6 x 9 PbF2 crystals where each crystal is read by a Silicon Photomultiplier. Continuous monitoring and state-of-art calibration are required in order to control the detector response.
Keywords: Calibration, photodetector, DAQ
The performance test of the Belle II Data Acquisition System (#2197)
T. Konno1, R. Itoh1, Z. - A. Liu3, M. Nakao1, S. Suzuki2, S. Yamada1, J. Zhao3
1 High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
The Belle II experiment, which is a new generation B-factory experiment at KEK, is about to start the data taking in 2018 for the purpose of the New Physics search in a huge B meson decay sample with a statistics of 50 times bigger than that of previous experiments. The event size from the Belle II detector is estimated to be more than 1MB at a maximum level 1 trigger rate of 30kHz, and the data acquisition system (DAQ) is required to cope with a data flow up to 30GB/sec. In order to manage it, the Belle II Data Acquisition System is implemented based on 1) a readout scheme with common optical fiber links (Belle2link) and readout modules (COPPER), 2) an event builder consisting of multiple readout PCs and inexpensive 1GbE and 10GbE network switches, and 3) modular High Level Trigger (HLT) and Storage units where the same offline reconstruction is performed for the software trigger decision. For the reduction of huge data size from the pixel detector (PXD), the track information given by the HLT processing is fed back to the PXD readout and only the hits around the track are extracted by the live FPGA processing. The DAQ is a synchronized system with a level 1 trigger, and the trigger and system clock are distributed to every front end component by a dedicated high speed link. The system-wide control of the DAQ (slow control) is done by a newly developed framework which unifies two different network communication frameworks, NSM2 and EPICS. The installation of detectors is mostly completed and the global system test of DAQ is being performed. The data taking with cosmic rays is also in progress as a part the test. In this presentation, the detailed measured performance of the Belle II DAQ system is reported with a prospect for the beam run in 2018.
Keywords: Data Acquisition system
The TOTEM precision clock distribution system. (#2548)
M. Quinto1, F. S. Cafagna2
1 CERN, Geneve, Switzerland
To further extend the measurement potentialities for the experiment at luminosities where the pile-up and multiple tracks in the proton detectors make it difficult to identify and disentangle real diffractive events from other event topologies, TOTEM has proposed to add a timing measurement capability to measure the time-of-flight difference between the two outgoing protons.
For such a precise timing measurements, a clock distribution system that empowers time information at spatially separate points with picosecond range precision, is needed.
For the clock distribution task, TOTEM will adopt an adaptation of the Universal Picosecond Timing System, developed for the FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) facility at GSI, actually installed as BUTIS system.
In this system an optical network, using dense wavelength division multiplex (DWDM) technique, is used to transmit two reference clock signals from the counting room to a grid of receivers in the tunnel. To these clocks another signal is added that is reflected back and used to continuously measure the delays of every optical transmission line; these delay measurements will be used to correct the time information generated at the detector location.
The usage of the DWDM make it possible to transmit multiple signals generated with different wavelengths, over a common single mode fibers. Moreover allows to employ standard telecommunication modules conform to international standards like the ITU (International Telecommunications Union) ones.
The prototype of this system, showed that the influence of the transmission system on the jitter is negligible and that the largest part of the total jitter of the clock transmission, is practically due to the inherent jitter of clock sources and the end user electronics.
The system has been installed in the tunnel and in the counting room. In this contribution details on the system design, installation in the TOTEM detector and tests will be given.
Keywords: Reference clock, Timing, DWDM, DAQ